Meaning of 'ABD-US-SAMAD, KHWAJA in English

'ABD-US-SAMAD, KHWAJA

born 16th century Persian painter who, together with Mir Sayyid 'Ali, was one of the first members of the imperial atelier in India and is thus credited with playing a strong part in the foundation of the Mughal school of miniature painting (see Mughal painting). 'Abd-us-Samad was born into a family of good social standing in Iran, and he had already gained a reputation as a calligrapher as well as a painter when he met the Mughal emperor Humayun, who was in exile in Iran. At Humayun's invitation, he followed him to India in 1548, first to Kabul and later to Delhi. He instructed both Humayun and his young son, the future emperor Akbar, in drawing. Among his students while he was superintendent of Akbar's atelier were Dasvant and Basavan, Hindus who became two of the most renowned Mughal painters. 'Abd-us-Samad received many honours from Akbar. In 1576 he was appointed master of the mint, and in 1584 at the end of his career he was made dewan (revenue commissioner) of Multan. Among 'Abd-us-Samad's greatest achievements was the supervision, together with his fellow Persian Mir Sayyid 'Ali, of a large part of the illustrations of the Dastan-e ("Stories of") Amir Hamzeh, a series that numbered about 1,400 paintings, all of unusually large size. As none of the paintings is signed, it is not certain whether he himself did any of them. Among the miniatures bearing his signature is one in the Royal Library in the Golestan Palace, Tehran, depicting Akbar presenting a miniature to his father, Humayun. The work, though Persian in its treatment of many details, hints of the Indian style to come, evident in the realistic presentation of the life of the court. A more thoroughly Indianized version of 'Abd-us-Samad's painting style is found in an illustrated manuscript of the Khamseh of Nezami dated 1595, now part of the collection of the British Museum.

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