Meaning of ADELAIDE, SAINT, in English

ADELAIDE, SAINT,

born 931 died Dec. 16, 999, Seltz, Alsace [now in France]; feast day December 16 German Adelheid Die Heilige, French Sainte Adlade, Italian Santa Adelaide consort of the Western emperor Otto I and, later, regent for her grandson Otto III; she helped strengthen the German church while subordinating it to imperial power. The daughter of Rudolf II (d. 937), king of Burgundy, and Bertha of Swabia, Adelaide was married (947) to Lothair, who succeeded his father, Hugh of Arles, as king of Italy in the same year. After Lothair died (950), Berengar of Ivrea, his old rival, seized the Italian throne and imprisoned Adelaide (April 951) at Garda. After her escape four months later, she asked the German king Otto I the Great to help her regain the throne. Otto marched into Lombardy (September 951), declared himself king, and married her (December 951). They were crowned emperor and empress by Pope John XII in Rome in 962. She devoted her time to promoting Cluniac monasticism and to strengthening the allegiance of the German church to the emperor. After Otto's death (May 7, 973), Adelaide exercised influence over her son Otto II until their estrangement in 978, when she left the court and lived in Burgundy with her brother King Conrad. At Conrad's urging she became reconciled with her son, and, before his death in 983, Otto appointed her his regent in Italy. With her daughter-in-law, Empress Theophano, she upheld the right of her three-year-old grandson, Otto III, to the German throne. She lived in Lombardy from 985 to 991, when she returned to Germany to serve as sole regent after Theophano's death (991). She governed until Otto III came of age (994), and, when he became Holy Roman emperor in 996, she retired from court life, devoting herself to founding churches, monasteries, and convents. (Spanish: "one who goes before"), representative of the kings of Castile (Spain) who in the early European Middle Ages headed military expeditions and, from the reign of Ferdinand III (1217-52) until the 16th century, held judicial and administrative powers over specific districts. Greater adelantados (adelantados mayores) served as appeal judges and in times of war were responsible for organizing their territories' armies. Lesser adelantados (adelantados menores) held similar powers, but they were often stationed along the frontiers, becoming known as frontier adelantados (adelantados fronterizos), and figured prominently in the military conquest of the Americas. In the 16th century the office was replaced by that of alcalde (magistrate). flourished 12th century English Scholastic philosopher and early interpreter of Arabic scientific knowledge. Adelard translated into Latin an Arabic version of Euclid's Elements, which for centuries served as the chief geometry textbook in the West. He studied and taught in France and traveled in Italy, Cilicia, Syria, Palestine, and perhaps also in Spain (c. 1110-25) before returning to Bath, Eng., and becoming a teacher of the future king Henry II. In his Platonizing dialogue De eodem et diverso ("On Sameness and Diversity"), his atomism and his attempt to reconcile the reality of universals with that of individuals distinguish him from other Platonists. His Quaestiones naturales (76 discussions of human nature, meteorology, astronomy, botany, and zoology) are based on Arabic science. His other writings include works on the abacus and the astrolabe and a translation of an Arabic astronomical table. also called Adlie Land, part of the coast of Wilkes Land in eastern Antarctica, extending from Claire Coast (west) to George V Coast (east). The region is an ice-covered plateau rising from the Indian Ocean and occupying an area of about 150,000 square miles (390,000 square km). It was discovered in 1840 by the French explorer Jules-Sbastien-Csar Dumont d'Urville, who named it after his wife. The Adlie Coast is the basis of France's claim on the continent between longitude 136 and 142 E; administratively it is a part of the French Southern and Antarctic Territories (q.v.). The French meteorological station Dumont d'Urville base was established in 1952 at Gologie Archipelago, replacing the original station of Port-Martin (founded 1950), which was destroyed by fire. private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Garden City, New York, U.S. Adelphi is a liberal arts college serving Long Island, with branch campuses in Manhattan and Huntington. It offers a range of bachelor's and master's degree programs in business, nursing, social work, and the arts and sciences. Doctorate degrees are offered in nursing, education, social work, and psychology. Total enrollment is about 7,000. The regents of the University of the State of New York established the charter for Adelphi University on June 24, 1896, and instruction began in September of that year. The school was originally located in Brooklyn; it moved to Garden City in 1929. After 1912 the university admitted only women. However, the educational needs of servicemen returning from World War II required that Adelphi restore its original coeducational policy in 1946. The School of Nursing opened in 1943 and the School of Social Work in 1949. The graduate school in psychology, organized in 1951, was established as a separate school-the Gordon F. Derner Institute of Advanced Psychological Studies-in 1972; it was the first of its kind in the country. born Aug. 8, 1732, Spantekow bei Anklam, Pomerania, Prussia [now in Germany] died Sept. 10, 1806, Dresden, Saxony [now in Germany] one of the most influential German-language scholars before Jacob Grimm. His grammars, dictionary, and works on style helped to standardize the language. He engaged in private research from 1761 to 1787, when he became principal librarian to the elector of Saxony at Dresden, a post he retained to the end of his life. Adelung's Versuch eines vollstndigen Grammatisch-kritischen Wrterbuches der hochdeutschen Mundart (1774-86; "Attempt at a Complete Grammatical-Critical Dictionary of the High German Dialect") revealed an intimate knowledge of the history of dialects basic to modern German. At the time of his death, he was still at work on Mithridates, oder allgemeine Sprachenkunde, 3 vol. (1806-17; "Mithridates, or General Linguistics"), in which he affirmed the relation of Sanskrit and the major European languages and also collected the Lord's Prayer in some 500 languages and dialects. Arabic 'adan, city of Yemen. It is situated along the north coast of the Gulf of Aden and lies on a peninsula enclosing the eastern side of At-Tawahi Harbour. The peninsula enclosing the western side of the harbour is called Little Aden. Aden has its earliest recorded mention in the Old Testament book of Ezekiel, where it is named alongside Canneh as one of the places with which Tyre had trading connections. Canneh and Aden were the two principal termini of the spice road of western Arabia, which was in use for about a millennium until the 3rd century AD. Later, Aden continued to function as a trading centre under Yemeni, Ethiopian, or Arab control. In the 16th century the Turks established themselves as rulers there. British interest in Aden as a strategic base dates from Napoleon's conquest of Egypt, a conquest that was regarded as a menace to Britain's communications with India. About 1800 the British established a garrison at Aden, and in 1802 they signed a treaty with the harbour's ruler, the sultan of Lahij. When steam navigation was introduced some years later, it became necessary to have a coaling station on the Red Sea route to India. Aden, which the British had captured in 1839 from the sultan, was chosen as the most suitable location and later became so heavily used as a coal-bunkering facility that it was nicknamed the "Coalhole of the East." Certain mainland areas were purchased by the British between 1868 and 1888, and in 1937 Aden became a British crown colony. In 1953 an oil refinery was built at Little Aden, on the western side of the bay. Aden became partially self-governing in 1962 and was incorporated in the Federation of South Arabia (comprising the former Aden Protectorate territories) in 1963. When the federation was promised independence from Britain by 1968, however, Aden became the focus of a struggle between two rival nationalist organizations, the Egyptian-supported Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen (FLOSY) and the Marxist-oriented National Liberation Front (NLF), for eventual control of the country. It was as a part of the NLF-ruled People's Republic of Southern Yemen that Aden achieved its independence on Nov. 30, 1967, and became the national capital in 1968 of what was known as South Yemen, or Yemen (Aden). In 1990 North Yemen and South Yemen merged into the single country of Yemen, and San'a' became the national capital of Yemen. The contemporary city of Aden consists of three sections: Crater, the old commercial quarter; At-Tawahi, the business section; and Ma'allah, the native harbour area. Its economy is based almost entirely on its functions as a commercial centre for nearby states and as a refueling stop for ships; the latter activity declined considerably during the closure of the Suez Canal (1967-75). The city has some small industries, including light manufacturing, evaporation of seawater to obtain marine salt, and boatbuilding. Aden was a free port, with no customs duties, until 1970, when duties were imposed. There is an international airport at Khaur Maksar, a former Royal Air Force (RAF) base just north of Aden. The University of Aden was opened in 1970. Pop. (1984 est.) 318,000. deepwater basin that forms a natural sea link between the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea. Named after the seaport of Aden, in southern Yemen, the gulf is situated between the coasts of Arabia and the Horn of Africa. To the west, it narrows into the Gulf of Tadjoura; its eastern geographic limits are defined by the meridian of Cape Guardafui (5116 E). In oceanographic and geologic terms, however, it extends to the eastern limits of the continental shelf beyond the Kuria Muria Islands to the north and the island of Socotra to the south, covering an area of some 205,000 square miles (530,000 square km). Its total length, measured from east-northeast to west-southwest, is 920 miles (1,480 km), and its mean width, measured from north-northeast to south-southwest, is 300 miles (480 km). The dominant relief feature of the gulf's terrain is the Sheba Ridge, an extension of the Indian Ocean ridge system, which extends along the middle of the gulf. The rough topography of the ridge includes a well-defined median valley that is continually offset by faults running approximately northeast to southwest. The largest of these faults forms the Alula-Fartak Trench, in which is found the gulf's maximum recorded depth of 17,586 feet (5,360 m). The Sheba Ridge is flanked on both sides by sediment-filled basins that reach depths of 13,000 feet (3,900 m) at the mouth of the gulf. To the west, the ridge gives way to a relatively shallow east-west-trending valley known as the Tadjoura Trench. The main factor in the gulf's geologic formation is the spreading of the seafloor away from the Sheba Ridge axis. The African continent and the Arabian Peninsula split initially along their present margins either in the late Eocene epoch (57.8 to 36.6 million years ago) or else in the Oligocene epoch (36.6 to 23.7 million years ago). They have since drifted apart in a direction parallel to the gulf's faults. The intensive exchange of water between the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, and the Arabian Sea, as well as strong evaporation and monsoon (rain-bearing) winds that constitute part of the airflow, all assist in the formation of a complex water structure. The surface layer is highly saline, and eddies complicate its flow pattern. Surface temperatures of the gulf's waters are generally between 77 and 88 F (25 and 31 C). The gulf's marine life is rich in both the quantity and the variety of its species. Seasonally variable upwelling of waters in the coastal zone provides the surface layer with a considerable supply of nutrient elements, which produce an abundant growth of plankton. Sardines and mackerel abound in these areas of upwelling. The main open-sea fish are dolphin, tuna, billfish, and sharks. Whales are frequently sighted. The gulf provides a breeding ground for sea turtles, and rock lobster are abundant. Despite a lack of large-scale commercial fishing facilities, the coastline supports many isolated fishing towns and villages. Local fishing takes place close to the shore; sardines, tuna, kingfish, and mackerel make up the bulk of the annual catches. Crayfish and sharks are also fished locally, while survey ships have occasionally pulled in exceptional catches of fish.

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