Meaning of GLASSWARE in English
any decorative article made of glass, often designed for everyday use. From very early times glass has been used for various kinds of vessels, and in all countries where the industry has been developed glass has been produced in a great variety of forms and kinds of decoration, much of it of great beauty. For the composition and properties of glass and the manufacture of various glass products such as glass containers, window glass, plate glass, optical glass, and glass fibres, see industrial glass. Additional reading There is ample literature on the history of glass. The following selection of titles includes basic reference works and handbooks as well as some specialized studies many of which contain bibliographical references. In addition, the Journal of Glass Studies, issued annually by The Corning Museum of Glass, includes extensive bibliographies.The basic sources for medieval glass manufacture are Heraclius, Von den Farben und Knsten der Rmer, ed. by Albert Ilg (1873); and Theophilus Presbyter, Schedula diversarum artium, ed. by Albert Ilg (1874; Eng. trans., On Divers Arts: The Treatise of Theophilus, 1963). Georg Agricola, De re metallica (1556; Eng. trans., 1912, reprinted 1950); and particularly Antonio Neri, L'arte vetraria (1612; Eng. trans. by Christopher Merret, The Art of Glass . . . , 1662), describe in detail glassmaking in the 16th and 17th centuries. See also Johann Kunckel, Ars vetraria experimentalis, 2 pt. (1679). Other technological studies are Apsley Pellatt, Curiosities of Glass Making (1849); and Alfred Lucas, Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries, 4th ed. rev. (1962). Development of glass technology in history is discussed in Ruth Hurst Vose, Glass (1980).Edward Dillon, Glass (1907); Robert Schmidt, Das Glas, 2nd ed. (1922); and W.B. Honey, Glass: A Handbook . . . Victoria and Albert Museum (1946), are among the best and most comprehensive general surveys of the history of glass. Masterpieces of Glass (1968), a catalog of some of the holdings in the British Museum, is a scholarly publication on the subject in general, accompanied by a large bibliography. Charles G. Janneau, Modern Glass (1931), is a review of world glass at the beginning of the 1930s. For a general study of the international development of art glass, see Ada Buch Polak, Modern Glass (1962). Geoffrey W. Beard, Modern Glass (1968), provides a brief account of modern glasswork from various countries.Comprehensive illustrative material on glass of the ancient world is found in Gustavus A. Eisen and Fahim Kouchakji, Glass, 2 vol. (1927); the most scholarly survey is that of The Corning Museum,Glass from the Ancient World: The Ray Winfield Smith Collection (1957). Roman glass in particular was treated exhaustively by Anton Kisa in Das Glas im Altertume, 3 vol. (1908). Basic treatises on pre-Roman glass include H.C. Beck, Glass Before 1500 B.C., in Ancient Egypt and the East, pt. 1, pp. 721 (June 1934); Poul Fossing, Glass Vessels Before Glass-Blowing (1940); and Birgit Nolte, Die Glasgefsse im alten gypten (1968). In addition to Kisa (op. cit.), general books on Roman glass, such as Morin-Jean, La Verrerie en Gaule sous l'Empire romain (1913); Clasina Isings, Roman Glass from Dated Finds (1957); and Donald B. Harden, Roman Glass from Karanis Found by the University of Michigan Archaeological Expedition in Egypt 192429 (1936), are important for the understanding of this period. The latter has become the standard reference work for describing and cataloging ancient glass in general.Western glass of the 5th8th centuries is treated in detail by D.B. Harden, Glass Vessels in Britain and Ireland, A.D. 4001000, in Dark Age Britain (1956). The standard handbooks on Islamic and Western medieval glass are still Carl J. Lamm, Mittelalterliche Glser und Steinschnittarbeiten aus dem Nahen Osten, 2 vol. (192930); and Franz Rademacher, Die deutschen Glser des Mittelalters (1933). Byzantine glass is described in Joseph Philippe, Le Monde byzantin dans l'histoire de la verrerie, VeXVIe sicle (1970). The basic handbooks on French and Belgian glass are James Barrelet, La Verrerie en France de l'poque gallo-romaine nos jours (1953); and Raymond Chambon, L'Histoire de la verrerie en Belgique du IIe sicle nos jours (1955), the latter including ample bibliographic references on literary sources. William A. Thorpe, A History of English and Irish Glass, 2 vol. (1929), is still the standard reference work on English glass while Hugh Wakefield covers Nineteenth Century British Glass (1961). German, Bohemian, and Austrian glass is treated exhaustively in Robert Schmidt, Die Glser der Sammler Mhsam, 2 vol. (191427). For polychrome painting on vessels, see Axel von Saldern, German Enameled Glass (1965). The handbooks on glass from c. 1800 to c. 1900 are Gustav Pazaurek, Glser der Empire und Biedermeierzeit (1923) and Moderne Glser (1901). Astone Gasparetto, Il vetro di Murano dalle origini ad oggi (1958), is the basic reference work on Venetian glass. The best surveys on Spanish glass are Josep Gudiol y Ricart, Los vidrios catalanes (1941); and Alice Wilson Frothingham, Spanish Glass (1964). For Scandinavian material, Ada Buch Polak, Gammelt Norsk Glass (1953); and Heribert Seitz, ldre Svenska Glas . . . (1936), should be consultedboth contain an English summary.Glass in the United States has been dealt with in great detail by George S. and Helen McKearin in American Glass (1948) and Two Hundred Years of American Blown Glass, rev. ed. (1966). Lura W. Watkins, American Glass and Glassmaking (1950, reprinted 1970), presents a useful outline of 19th- and 20th-century American glass. Ray and Lee Grover, Art Glass Nouveau (1967), is valuable for its colour illustrations of 19th- and 20th-century fancy glasses in American collections. See also Mary Jean Madigan, Steuben Glass: An American Tradition in Crystal (1982); and Gerald Stevens, Glass in Canada (1982).On Chinese glass, see W.C. White, Tombs of Old Lo-Yang (1934); Friedrich Hirth, China and the Roman Orient, pp. 228234 (1885); W.B. Honey, Early Chinese Glass, Burlington Magazine, 71:211223 (1937); and H.C. Beck, Far Eastern Glass: Some Western Origins, Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 10:164 (1938). Chinese glass Glass has never been truly at home in China. Records suggest that it was brought there from the West as early as the 3rd century, but finds of small glass objects of typical Chinese shapes dating from as early as the Han dynasty (206 BCAD 220) suggest that, even if the material was brought from the West, it could be worked on the spot to conform to Chinese usage. It was no doubt regarded as a cheap substitute for jade. The Chinese themselves do not claim to have made glass before the 5th century, and even then it is doubtful if they knew more than how to make beads and other similar small objects. The vessels of glass occasionally found in burials of the T'ang (618907) and later dynasties, although perhaps locally made, are more likely imports. Of the extant glass vessels typically Chinese in form, none can be shown to be of a date earlier than the reign of the K'ang-hsi emperor (16611722), and there is every likelihood that glassmaking was in fact introduced in this period when, through the Jesuits, China became vividly aware of Western culture. To this period probably belongs a series of bowls and vases of which the blown character is manifest. They are often of a deteriorated material that appears to suffer from the same defects as European glass of the same epoch. During the reigns of the Yung-cheng (172235) and Ch'ien-lung (173596) emperors, the emphasis on blown forms is subordinated to the desire to make glass a surrogate for natural stones. Although the colours used are often not such as are found in nature, the glass is handled as though it were jade, the foot in particular being fashioned as though cut from stone. This lapidary treatment is further emphasized in the cased glass bottles cut on the wheel in such a way that the design stands in one or more colours on a ground of a contrasting tone. Robert Jesse Charleston Mid-15th to mid-19th century Venice and the faon de Venise Goblet, green glass enamelled and gilt, Venetian c. 1500. In the British Museum. Height 22.2 A glass industry was already established near Venice in the 7th century, and vessel glass was made there by the last quarter of the 10th century. In 1291 the glass furnaces were removed to the neighbouring island of Murano to remove the risk of fire from the city. Although Venice had constant contact with the East, there is no evidence that it was indebted to that source for its skill in glassmaking. Venetian enamelled glasses (see photograph) appear in the second half of the 15th century, and, although their technique is essentially similar to that of the Syrian glassmakers, it is likely that they are of independent development. Little is known of the vessels made before this period, but it is evident from representations in pictures that they were mainly footed flasks and low beakers. The Venetians attributed the introduction of enamelling to a member of the glassmaking family of Barovier. The earliest pieces known, commencing with a goblet dated to 1465, certainly show no signs of outside influence. These, like most Venetian glass of the period, were inspired by the artistic ideals of the Italian Renaissance. The decorations represent triumphs, allegories of love, grotesques (fanciful combinations of human and animal forms), and so forth, with borders of dots of enamel laid on a ground of gold etched in scale pattern. Many of these pieces were of richly coloured glass, blue, green, or purple. The Venetians were keenly aware of Roman achievements in glassmaking as in the other arts; they reproduced mosaic, millefiori, and aventurine glass, and glass resembling natural layered stones (calcedonio, sometimes miscalled Schmelzglas), and they even copied a Roman form of bowl that had vertical, external ribs. All these types of glass were Venetian specialities, and they were probably developed as a part of the extensive local bead industry. Venetian glass ewer in the form of a nef (ship), attributed to Ermonia Vivarini, The greatest achievement of Venice, however, and that upon which its great export trade came to be based, was the manufacture of clear, colourless glass, which was apparently exclusive to Italy during the Middle Ages (see photograph). From its resemblance to natural crystal, this material was called cristallo, although in fact it often has a not unpleasing brownish or grayish cast. Made with soda, it was very ductile and cooled quickly. It therefore demanded of the workmen great speed and dexterity, and this, in turn, affected the nature of the glasses made. In the first half of the 16th century the Venetian glassblowers produced glasses of an austere simplicity. As the century proceeded (and more markedly still in the 17th century), however, there was a tendency to produce elaborate and fantastic forms. Enamelling on glass went out of fashion in Venice (except on pieces for export) in the first half of the 16th century. Its place was taken to some extent by the use of opaque white glass threads for decorative purposes (latticinio). This form of decoration became progressively more complex; opaque threads were embedded in a matrix of clear glass and then twisted into cables, which were themselves used to build up the wall of a vessel. The height of complexity was reached when a bulb of glass decorated with cables or threads running obliquely in one direction was blown inside a second bulb with threads twisted in the other direction. The composite globe thus formed was then worked into the desired form. This resulted in a vessel completely covered with a lacy white pattern (vetro di trina). Other methods of decoration at this time were mold blowing and dipping a vessel while hot into water or rolling it on a bed of glass fragments to produce a crackled surface (ice glass). Cristallo was also found suitable for engraving with a diamond point, a technique which produced spidery opaque lines that were especially suitable for delicate designs. The technique seems to have come into use about 1530. The glassworkers of the island of Murano were forbidden to leave Venice or to teach their secrets to outsiders, under dire penalties both to themselves and their families. Such was the demand for Venetian glass in the rest of Europe, however, and such was the desire of kings and nobles to control and reap the profits of its manufacture, that many Venetian workmen in the course of the 16th century were tempted to abscond to other countries, where they helped to set up glassworks. Furthermore, at Altare, near Genoa, existed a second great centre of glassmaking. Its glass was so like the Venetian in style and material that it is nowadays impossible to distinguish between the two. The glassworkers at Altare, moreover, were governed by no such laws as the Venetians; rather, they made it their policy to supply their men and teach their methods wherever there was a demand. Thus, the fugitive Venetians and the willing Altarists spread the Italian art of glass to the rest of Europe, and glasshouses were established in France, Spain, Portugal, Austria, and Germany, while in the North, Antwerp was a secondary source of diffusion. Italian glassworkers ranged as far north as England, Denmark, and Sweden. Their labour was necessarily diluted by that of native workmen to whom they were often required to teach their methods. Variations in locally available raw materials modified the quality of the glass, and local taste influenced the form and ornamentation of the objects they produced. Nevertheless, in the late 16th and the 17th centuries an international style in glass developed, wholly Italian in origin and inspiration (faon de Venise). Although there was everywhere a family likeness among glasses of the faon de Venise, certain countries developed types peculiar to themselves that are worthy of mention. Thus in Spain not only were fantastic and even bizarre shapes evolved in green glass, but in Barcelona a characteristic kind of enamelled decoration was developed, the peculiarities of which include a light-leaf-green colour and a constantly recurring lily-of-the-valley motif (late 15th16th century). Elsewhere, at Hall, in the Tirol, a characteristic decoration with the diamond point, often supplemented by cold painting (i.e., unfired oilor other paint applied to a finished object), was favoured in alternating broad and narrow upright panels containing symmetrical scrollwork or coats of arms and other devices. Almost equally stiff and formal diamond-point work is to be seen on glasses probably made at the London glasshouse of Jacopo Verzelini (examples dated between 1577 and 1590). A more promising development of diamond-point engraving occurred in the Netherlands. There too the work of the 16th century was relatively formal and stiff, linear and clear, with simple hatching only. In the succeeding century, however, diamond-point engraving became initially more supple and pleasing, only to degenerate eventually into over-elaboration. Diamond-point engraving was practiced there widely by talented amateurs in the 17th century, among them Humanists such as Maria Tesselschade Roemers Visscher, her even more famous sister Anna Roemers Visscher and Anna Maria van Schurman. The latter two decorated their glasses with flowers and insects drawn with a gossamer touch, often accompanied by epigrams in Latin or Greek capitals scratched with severe precision or in the free scrolled style of the Italianate writing masters of the time. A similar calligraphy was practiced later in the century by the amateur Willem Jacobsz van Heemskerk, with notably beautiful results. Engraving in the first half of the 17th century gradually abandoned linear clarity in favour of crosshatched chiaroscuro (shading) effects, the highlights formed by sometimes completely opaque spots. Many artists worked in this manner; two are worthy of special mention. One was an accomplished engraver signing C.J.M., whose earliest dated glass is of 1644; the other was Willem Mooleyser, of Rotterdam, who worked in the last two decades of the 17th century with a scribbled freedom and vigour that raised his work above the average. By the end of the century this type of diamond-point work was superseded in popularity by wheel engraving. Germany In Germany toward the end of the 17th century a reaction to Venetian glass styles seems to have set in. In that country there had been a continuous survival, probably from late Roman times, of a local type of green glass, a product of forest glasshouses made with potash obtained by burning forest vegetation and called therefore Waldglas (forest glass). From this material, often of great beauty of colour, were made shapes peculiar to Germany, notably a cylindrical beer glass studded with projecting bosses, or prunts (Krautstrunk, or cabbage stalk), and a wineglass (Rmer) with cup-shaped or ovoid bowl set on a similarly prunted hollow stem. This became the classic German shape of wineglass, which survived into the 18th century and, with modifications, to the present day. Apart from these indigenous forms, German glass in Venetian-type cristallo developed local characteristics of its own in the latter part of the 17th century. In Nrnberg, for instance, the tall-stemmed Italianate goblet underwent a transformation into a severe glass with stem composed of no more than a baluster-shaped element and a bulb, which were joined together by a number of disk-shaped elements, or mereses, and attached to foot and bowl by the same means. Such goblets display some of the most accomplished glass engraving that has ever been practiced. The leader and founder of the Nrnberg school of engravers was Georg Schwanhardt, a pupil of Caspar Lehmann. Lehmann had been gem cutter to the emperor Rudolf II in Prague and there had taken the decisive step of transferring the art of engraving from precious stones to glass. His first dated work is a beaker of 1605; in 1609 he obtained an exclusive privilege for engraving glass. Although he is the first great personality in glass engraving, he was not the first to practice the art in the German area. On Lehmann's death in 1622 Schwanhardt inherited his patent and moved to his own native city, Nrnberg, where a whole school of glass engraving grew up around him and his family. Schwanhardt's work is characterized by delicate, tiny landscapes, often accompanied by bold formal scrollwork. His son Heinrich excelled in minute landscapes but also engraved inscriptions of fine calligraphic quality. Other notable Nrnberg engravers of the late 17th century were Paulus Eder; Hermann Schwinger, a master calligrapher; and H.W. Schmidt and G.F. Killinger, both notable for the delicacy with which they rendered landscapes. Somewhat similar work was done at Frankfurt am Main by members of the Hess family. In Bohemia, after Lehmann's death, little engraving of high quality was done. Just before 1700, however, with the perfection of a massive, crystal-clear, potash-lime glass that allowed cuts of considerable depth, the engravers of the BohemianSilesian area came into prominence. The harnessing of the mountain streams in the Riesengebirge for water power enabled engravers (those of the Hirschberger Valley in particular) to practice relief engraving, which demands immense energy for grinding down the background of the design. Massive covered goblets were decorated with powerful acanthus scrolls in the contemporary baroque taste. Relief engraving (Hochschnitt) was only occasionally used by itself in the BohemianSilesian area in the 18th century; more often it was employed in conjunction with intaglio (Tiefschnitt). By the turn of the 18th century the engravers of this areaanonymous workmen regarded as artisans rather than as artistshad acquired great technical skill; this enabled them to adapt to glass all the changing fashions of the 18th century in the decorative arts. Glass engraving, often of fine quality, was also practiced in many parts of Germanynotably Thuringia, Saxony, and Brunswickbut the most significant work of the late 17th and early 18th centuries was that done in Brandenburg. There, the glassworks at Potsdam (moved to Zechlin in 1736) produced massive goblets and beakers that were engravedusually to order for the courtin Berlin, where a water-powered engraving shop had been installed in 1687. Both relief and intaglio engraving were practiced, the latter being favoured. This workshop, indeed, produced perhaps the greatest of the German intaglio engravers, Gottfried Spiller, whose deep cutting on the thick Potsdam glass has seldom, if ever, been surpassed. A notable, if lesser, engraver from the same shop was Heinrich Jger; and later, in the 1730s and 1740s, work of high quality was done by Elias Rosbach. Another workshop of great significance was established toward the end of the 17th century at Kassel, in Hesse. There perhaps the greatest of all the relief engravers, Franz Gondelach, handled glass with a truly sculptural feeling. In the second half of the 18th century, engraved glass declined in favour, although the technical skill required for its production never died out in the BohemianSilesian area. It experienced a great revival in the second quarter of the 19th century, when the taste of the newly prosperous bourgeoisie favoured elaborate decoration. The engraving of this period is often skillful in the extreme, although marred by excessive naturalism. Striking innovations of the period were the use of a casing (normally ruby red, blue, or opaque white) through which the design was cut down to the colourless glass. A yellow coating (the silver stain of the stained-glass artist) was often used in the same way. Notable engravers of this epoch were Dominik Bimann, August Bhm, A.H. Pfeiffer, and members of the Pelikan and Simm families. Second in importance only to engraving as a method of decorating glass in Germany was enamelling. Germany had proved a profitable market for enamelled Venetian glass during the 16th century, and, in the latter part of that century, glass enamelling began to be practiced in the Germanic lands themselves, most notably in Bohemia. This enamelling, in bright opaque colours, was much favoured throughout the 17th century, chiefly on the cylindrical drinking glasses, often of great size, known as Humpen. The glass they were made of was often impure and of a greenish or yellowish cast, while the painting itself was the simplified repetitive work of artisans rather than of original artists. Nonetheless, the gaiety of colour of these glasses and a certain navet in their painting give them an authentic unsophisticated charm. The most favoured types of decoration include a representation of the imperial double-headed eagle (Reichsadlerhumpen); representations of the emperor with his seven electors, either seated or mounted on horseback (Kurfrstenhumpen); subjects from the Old and New Testaments; and allegorical themes such as the Eight Virtues and the Ages of Man. These were painted between borders of multicoloured or white dots or intersecting ellipses, often on a gold ground. This general style continued into the 18th century; but in the course of that century the levels of artistic and technical competence sank, and the tumblers and spirit bottles, which were the main types produced, can be regarded only as objects of peasant art. A far more sophisticated type of enamel painting was carried on during the third quarter of the 17th century at Nrnberg. There, painting in black or sepia (Schwarzlotmalerei)a technique borrowed from the stained-glass artistwas used to decorate the small cylindrical beakers (often resting on three hollow ball feet), which were a locally favoured shape. Other colours, notably red used in touches with the black, were occasionally employed. The greatest and most original artist of this school was Johann Schaper, who painted delicate architectural and landscape compositions in which a fine point was used to etch in details. The best of Schaper's followers were J.L. Faber, Hermann Bencherlt, Johann Keyll, and Abraham Helmhack, but none of them equalled him in artistic competence. Comparable work appears to have been done, although on a more restricted scale, in the Rhineland, notably by Johann Anton Carli of Andernach. At the beginning of the 18th century Schwarzlot painting, often with touches of gold, was practiced in Bohemia and Silesia and reflected the changing fashions in the decorative arts. Daniel Preissler and his son Ignaz are known to have done this work. In the first half of the 19th century the decorators of vessel glass once again borrowed from the stained-glass artist. Samuel Mohn, his son Gottlob Samuel Mohn, and Anton Kothgasser painted the beakers typical of this Biedermeier period in transparent enamels and yellow stain. A technique peculiar to Bohemia in the 18th century was that of the gold sandwich glasses (Zwischengoldglser). These were beakers or less often goblets made of two layers of glass, exactly fitting one over the other, between which was sandwiched a gold leaf previously etched with a steel point to the desired design. The earliest work in this technique was anonymous, but late in the century J.J. Mildner employed it with notable success, making gift tumblers decorated with medallions of etched gold or silver leaf (often backed with red pigment) and sometimes also engraved on the wheel or with the diamond point. Mid-19th to 20th century The modern history of glass can be said to begin in the middle of the 19th century with the great exhibitions and with the new self-consciousness in the decorative arts that they expressed. Glassware was being publicly discussed in art journals and collected in museums, and this new spirit of awareness led to a greatly increased exchange of ideas among the leading glass centres and to the borrowing of ideas from the past. In some degree the established glass-producing centres were still concerned in the modern period with the styles of glassware for which they had achieved an earlier reputation. The English glasshouses continued their production of deeply cut crystal; engraved glass and to a lesser extent coloured and painted glass were given the greatest attention in central Europe; the Venetian glasshouses at Murano were the leading exponents of furnace-manipulated glass. But alongside these traditional methods of using and decorating glassware can be discerned the development of a renewed interest in the beauty of the material itself. Expressed in various ways, in the use of thick masses and in internal figuring and patterning, this interest has been the keynote of the most significant modern contributions to the art of glass. Pressed glassware, which had been first made with great promise in the first half of the 19th century, was being widely made in the middle of the century, and later, as a cheap imitation of cut crystal. The decorative possibilities of the process continued, however, to be exploited in a variety of popular wares; and in the 20th century a series of new simple forms of pressed glassware appeared that had been expressly designed in relation to the characteristics of its manufacture. Great Britain The Great Exhibition of 1851 was the culmination of a period of intense activity in the British glasshouses. The excise duty on glass had been removed in 1845, and the British glassmakers were determined not only to excel in their traditional deeply cut crystal but also to rival the Bohemians and the French in coloured, layered, and enamel-painted wares. Probably the most enterprising of the English glassmakers of the period was Benjamin Richardson, of Wordsley near Stourbridge; surviving pieces of this period from the Richardson firm include some admirable painted and engraved pieces as well as crystal wares deeply cut in bold patterns. Probably in reaction against the banality of pressed-glass imitations of cutting, the most sophisticated work in crystal during the later 1850s through the 1870s was decorated by engraving, often carried out by immigrant Bohemian craftsmen. The Venetian style of furnace-manipulated glass was also exerting a strong influence. It can be seen, for instance, in the development of the elaborate Victorian centrepieces in the 1860s and 1870s. In some degree the Venetian style was also an influence, alongside that of the Far East, in the fashioning of the fancy wares that were made in Great Britainas it was in the United States and elsewhereduring the 1880s and 1890s. These wares were often given specific trade names and were mostly made in the English Midlands by firms such as Thomas Webb & Sons of Stourbridge and John Walsh Walsh of Birmingham. A striking form of mid-Victorian virtuosity was the cameo glass produced by Stourbridge glassworkers. This work, inspired by the Portland vase, required a lengthy process of etching and carving, normally through an opaque-white-glass layer to leave a white carved design in relief on a dark-coloured glass body. The first important pieces, such as the Pegasus vase, were produced in the 1870s by John Northwood, and in the later part of the century the most distinguished cameo work was carried out by George Woodall. The influence of the Arts and Crafts Movement was toward the use of plastic forms and furnace decoration, which the English art critic John Ruskin had advocated in The Stones of Venice. In 1859 Philip Webb designed for William Morris some simply formed tableware that was made at the London glassworks of James Powell & Sons. From about 1880 this glassworks was under the control of Harry J. Powell who, working until World War I, developed a simple, dignified style of handmade blown glass, which was subsequently continued in designs by Barnaby Powell, James Hogan, and others. During the 1930s and after World War II other firms produced work in which a restrained and distinctively modern approach was made to the cutting of faultless crystal glass. Notable designs were produced by Keith Murray for Stevens & Williams shortly before World War II and by David Queensberry (12th marquess of Queensberry) for Webb Corbett in the 1960s. Among the more distinguished glass engraving may be mentioned the diamond-point fantasies of Laurence Whistler and the work of John Hutton, made by a movable wheel held in the hand, such as his great screen in the new Coventry Cathedral. The appearance of new factories in the 1960s, concerned primarily with form and colour, widened the scope of British glass design; and at this time the glass-teaching schools were especially significant as centres for original work by individual artists.
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