Meaning of HENRY in English

HENRY

born Jan. 31, 1512, Lisbon died Jan. 31, 1580, Almeirim, Port. byname Henry The Cardinal-king, Portuguese Henrique O Cardeal-rei king of Portugal and Roman Catholic ecclesiastic whose brief reign (1578-80) was dominated by the problem of succession. His failure to decisively designate a successor left the Portuguese throne at his death prey to its Spanish claimant, King Philip II. Henry, son of Manuel I, chose a career in the church and became, successively, archbishop of Braga (1534), vora (1540), and Lisbon (1564), attaining the rank of cardinal in 1545. For a time he headed the Portuguese Inquisition. He also became a staunch supporter of the Society of Jesus and founded the Jesuit university in vora (1558). Henry served as regent until 1568 in the latter part of the minority of his grandnephew Sebastian (reigned 1557-78). After Sebastian's death in a disastrous defeat by the Moors at Alcazarquivir (Battle of the Three Kings), the aged, celibate Henry was named king. Unable to resolve the succession question, he named five governors to act as regents on his death. Spanish occupation eight months later put Philip on the throne. born c. 1174, , Valenciennes, Hainaut died June 11, 1216, Thessalonica, Macedonia byname Henry Of Hainaut, or Of Flanders, French Henri De Hainaut, or De Flandre second and most able of the Latin emperors of Constantinople, who reigned from 1206 to 1216 and consolidated the power of the new empire. Son of Baldwin V, count of Hainaut, and younger brother of Baldwin I, the first Latin emperor, Henry began the conquest of Asia Minor in 1204 and was on the point of crushing the Byzantine loyalist leader Theodore I Lascaris when a Bulgarian invasion of Thrace necessitated his return to Europe. After the death of Baldwin at the hands of Kaloyan, the Bulgarian tsar, in 1205, he served as regent and was made emperor of Romania, as the Latin empire was known, in August 1206. Henry defeated the Bulgars in Europe and between 1209 and 1211 held the forces of Theodore Lascaris at bay. In 1214 he forced Theodore, who had made himself emperor at Nicaea, to sign a treaty at Nymphaeum defining the borders of their two realms and ceding the northwestern portions of Asia Minor to Henry. He also made an alliance through marriage with the Bulgarian tsar Boril. Thus, through diplomacy he was able to ensure the security of the Latin empire. An enlightened ruler, he strove to reconcile his Greek subjects to what they regarded as the disgrace of Latin rule, though the excesses of the Latin churchmen made this virtually impossible. His refusal to cede Greek church lands to the papacy caused a dispute with Pope Innocent III. Henry died, possibly poisoned, in the 10th year of his reign and was succeeded by Peter of Courtenay. No capable rulers followed Henry, and the Latin empire quickly declined.

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