Meaning of INTELLIGENCE in English

INTELLIGENCE

in government operations, evaluated information concerning such things as the strength, activities, and probable courses of action of other nations who are usually, but not necessarily, opponents. The goal of every intelligence service is to produce reports consisting of evaluated information that can be given to leaders to help them in their decision making. There are three main steps to producing such reports. It first must be decided what it is that must be known, then information must be gathered, and finally it must be evaluated and analyzed. The first stepdeciding what information to gatherpresents many possibilities. Political intelligencethe most desired informationis perhaps the least tangible, as correct analysis of the political situation in a country can be very difficult. Political intelligence includes everything from information on party organization and ideological rivalries to detailed biographies of all key and even subordinate figures. The next most sought-after intelligence concerns military and technological information. This is known as hard intelligence, for it is readily quantifiable and verifiable (e.g., the number of active troops in Libya), unlike soft political intelligence (e.g., who will form the next government in Bolivia). Also of importance is information regarding economics, social and religious movements, agriculture, climate, and anything else that may bear on the actions of the country. The gathering of intelligence may entail many methods. Contrary to the impression created by spy films, most intelligence comes from open public sources, such as foreign newspapers, radio and television broadcasts, government reports, and scientific and technical journals. Foreign diplomats also provide information. The remaining intelligence is gathered by covert means such as satellites, the deciphering of secret transmissions, and agents in foreign countries. The concept of intelligence is not new. The military treatise Ping-fa (The Art of War), written about 400 BC by the Chinese military philosopher Sun Tzu, mentions the use of secret agents and the importance of good intelligence. Knowledge of an enemy's intentions has always been important, and consequently intelligence systems have been in use from ancient times. It was not until the late 18th century, though, that a distinction was made between internal security and the external foreign intelligence functions of a country. It has been suggested that World War I itself was the partial result of poor intelligence, as none of the nations involved had intended to go to war. Such an experience served as a strong lesson, and with rapid developments in technology (especially in electronics and aeronautics), intelligence services grew in the 1920s and '30s and then expanded rapidly during World War II. In the years following came the Cold War, in which global opponents confronted each other with intelligence agencies rather than armies. In the second half of the 20th century, the most prominent intelligence services were the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) of the United States, the KGB (Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti) of the Soviet Union, Great Britain's MI-5 and MI-6, the DGSE (Direction Gnrale de la Scurit Extrieure) of France, China's Social Affairs Department, and the Mossad of Israel. The major intelligence services of the world can be divided into three basic types: American (used by, for example, Japan and South Korea), Soviet (followed by members of the communist bloc), and British (the model used by many western European countries). During World War II, the chief intelligence service of the United States was the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), and it was from the OSS that the CIA was born shortly after the war's end. Although the CIA was designed to facilitate the centralization of American intelligence operations, it is in fact only one member of what is known as the U.S. intelligence community, which includes agencies from the military, along with the State Department, the Department of Energy, the National Security Agency (NSA), and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). While all agencies are theoretically equal, it is the CIA that is the most prominent. The major activities of the CIA since it was founded have been intelligence gathering, counterintelligence, and occasionally, and most controversially, direct intervention in the internal affairs of other countries by covert military operations and other means. The CIA's chief executive is appointed by the president and is the president's primary intelligence adviser. The CIA is divided into four major divisions: operations, science and technology, administration, and intelligence. The operations division has been the area responsible for clandestine activities; the science and technology division keeps abreast of worldwide developments in intelligence and scientific technology; administration is responsible for recruitment, training, and information storage; and the intelligence division gathers information and produces finished reports. The definitive reports produced by this agency are the National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs). Reviewed by the Intelligence Board, and then presented to the president, the NIEs represent the culmination of the CIA's work. Formed in 1954 from preexisting intelligence and security agencies, the Soviet Union's KGB was the direct descendant of the Bolshevik secret police, the Cheka, which was created in 1917. The KGB was in many ways a centralized version of the entire U.S. intelligence community, as it performed the three main functions of intelligence, counterintelligence, and internal security. The KGB was divided into several major directorates, three of which were the First Chief Directorate (which carried out counterintelligence), Second Chief Directorate (responsible for foreign intelligence gathering), and Third Chief Directorate (responsible for internal security, believed to include Smershfrom Russian, smert shpionam, meaning death to spies). After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, the KGB was deprived of much of its former power and came under the control of Russia's elected government. The British intelligence service is characterized by its high level of secrecy. It is divided into the Secret Intelligence Service and the Security Service, which are known by their old wartime designations of MI-6 and MI-5, respectively. Little is known about the inner workings of these services, and this model of secrecy has been emulated by France and other western European nations in their intelligence agencies. in military science, information concerning an enemy or an area. The term is also used for an agency that gathers such information. Military intelligence is as old as warfare itself. Even in biblical times, Moses sent spies to live with the Canaanites in order to learn about their ways and about their strengths and weaknesses. In the American Revolution George Washington relied heavily on information that was provided by an intelligence net based in New York City, and in World War II the results of a lack of good intelligence were realized in the destruction of the U.S. Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor. Today, nations have at their disposal information collection and processing systems that permit gathering and producing intelligence more rapidly and more accurately than ever before. Satellites, ultramodern aircraft, electronic systems, human sources, cameras, imaging and electronic devices, and a host of other systems permit the amassing of information on a scale that was unheard of in the past. ability to adapt effectively to the environment, either by making a change in oneself or by changing the environment or finding a new one. Much of the excitement among investigators in the field of intelligence derives from their trying to determine exactly what intelligence is. Different investigators have emphasized different aspects of intelligence in their definitions. For example, in a 1921 symposium on the definition of intelligence, the American psychologist Lewis M. Terman emphasized the ability to think abstractly, while another American psychologist, Edward L. Thorndike, emphasized learning and the ability to give good responses to questions. In a similar 1986 symposium, however, psychologists generally agreed on the importance of adaptation to the environment as the key to understanding both what intelligence is and what it does. Such adaptation may occur in a variety of environmental situations. For example, a student in school learns the material that is required to pass or do well in a course; a physician treating a patient with an unfamiliar disease adapts by learning about the disease; an artist reworks a painting in order to make it convey a more harmonious impression. For the most part, adapting involves making a change in oneself in order to cope more effectively, but sometimes effective adaptation involves either changing the environment or finding a new environment altogether. Effective adaptation draws upon a number of cognitive processes, such as perception, learning, memory, reasoning, and problem solving. The main trend in defining intelligence, then, is that it is not itself a cognitive or mental process, but rather a selective combination of these processes purposively directed toward effective adaptation to the environment. For example, the physician noted above learning about a new disease adapts by perceiving material on the disease in medical literature, learning what the material contains, remembering crucial aspects of it that are needed to treat the patient, and then reasoning to solve the problem of how to apply the information to the needs of the patient. Intelligence, in sum, has come to be regarded as not a single ability but an effective drawing together of many abilities. This has not always been obvious to investigators of the subject, however, and, indeed, much of the history of the field revolves around arguments regarding the nature and abilities that constitute intelligence. mental quality that consists of the abilities to learn from experience, adapt to new situations, understand and handle abstract concepts, and use knowledge to manipulate one's environment. Although definitions of intelligence vary, theorists agree that it is a capacity or potentiality rather than a fully developed attainment and that it has a biological basis. It is thought of as a combination of the innate characteristics of an individual's central nervous systemwhich are genetically endowedand of developed intelligencewhich is molded by experience and learning. Intelligence can be measured, though imperfectly, by intelligence tests, among them the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler scales. These tests are intended to determine an individual's intelligence quotient (IQ); this was originally calculated according to the relation of mental age to chronological age, but the use of the concept of mental age in assessing IQ scores has been largely discontinued. IQ is now more often assessed on the basis of the statistical distribution of scores. (See intelligence test.) Although high intelligence might seem to guarantee an individual person a high degree of achievement in society, many other factors make long-term predictions unreliable. The mechanisms for turning intellectual ability into social achievement are not fully understood. School achievement tests taken early in life provide a good correlation with IQ tests taken at the same time, but the results cannot predict achievement beyond school age. There is no known method for evaluating innate intelligence. Although the relationship between heredity and environment in the development of intelligence is not fully understood, this relationship has been studied in various ways, including that of examining the individual achievement levels of sets of identical or fraternal twins who are reared apart. It is useful to distinguish between intellectual levelthe single, mass-related test scoreand intellectual patternthe variations each person experiences in specific levels of ability. A person's intelligence level may be 120, but the level of verbal ability, for example, may be far superior to that of the skill used in solving mathematical equations. In addition, individual abilities develop at different rates throughout childhood and up to about age 25, when there is an overall slowing down of intellectual development. It is extremely difficult, therefore, to coordinate intellectual level with intellectual pattern, since IQ tests are designed to reflect general intelligence at the time that the test is taken and do not always take into account either the influence of the cultural and economic milieu or any number of specific intellectual abilities that may not be fully developed. About 1900, psychologists began to develop tests that led to the empirical study of the structure of human intelligence. Later, statistical techniques were applied to the test results, and comparisons made between sample findings helped to evaluate the relative importance of individual abilities to create a comprehensive picture of intelligence. Until about 1950 psychological opinion was divided between those who advocated the concept of a unified intellect and those who favoured the breakdown of intelligence into a range of specific abilities. After the 1950s the work of J.P. Guilford became a major influence in intellectual theory. Guilford broke down the concept of general intelligence into 120 specific abilities classified under three general headings: logical processes, the kinds of information processed, and the products of such processing. These measurement-based studies of the structure of intelligence were supplemented in the 1970s by direct studies of the mental processes underlying intelligence and the way these cognitive processes operate in various environmental contexts. The building of computer models of human cognition and investigations of the biological basis of intelligence in the brain are other promising approaches to understanding human intelligence. Increasingly, intellectual level has been correlated with environmental influences, particularly the effect of socioeconomic structure upon genetic endowment. Studies show that similar groups of people provide divergent test results if they come from different cultural backgrounds. Such factors as nutrition, educational resources, family life and child-rearing practices, and social expectations play a significant role in determining how individuals utilize their genetic potential. The work of Jean Piaget greatly enhanced the overall understanding of intellectual development up to adolescence. From his studies of individual children, Piaget concluded that intellectual development follows a hierarchical pattern that usually corresponds with chronological age. Piaget's developmental theories continue to be a strong influence, despite the fact that a number of alternative theories have evolved. in government operations, evaluated information concerning such things as the strength, activities, and probable courses of action of other nations who are usually, but not necessarily, opponents. In a world of sovereign nations, information is a prime element of national power, and intelligence is the vital and often pivotal foundation for national decisions. The nature of intelligence is illustrated by a U.S. presidential order (Executive Order No. 12333) of December 4, 1981, which directed the national intelligence system to Provide the President . . . with the necessary information on which to base decisions concerning the conduct and development of foreign, defense and economic policy, and the protection of United States national interests from foreign security threats. The order directed that all means consistent with the law and rights of individuals be used to develop intelligence information for the President and specified that emphasis should be given to detecting and countering espionage and other threats . . . by foreign intelligence services against the United States government. These official words define the functions of intelligence and counterintelligence, but they omit a third and most controversial role of intelligence agencies, that of intervening secretly in the political or economic affairs of other nations, an activity commonly referred to as covert action. Intelligence, counterintelligence, and covert action denote a wide variety of governmental activities related to national security and defense and foreign policy. A statesman's day often begins and ends with the reading of intelligence reports. Accurate information is essential to, but does not guarantee, optimal decisions, while inadequate information has demonstrably led to disaster. The need for information must be recognized, and it must be collected efficiently, interpreted with sophistication, communicated with speed to precisely where it is most needed, and acted on with skill and courage. Additional reading General works Introductions that provide a frame of reference and the terminology necessary for understanding the study of intelligence are found in such comprehensive sources as Rom Harr and Roger Lamb (eds.), The Encyclopedic Dictionary of Psychology (1983); Benjamin B. Wolman (ed.), Handbook of Intelligence: Theories, Measurements, and Applications (1985); Richard L. Gregory (ed.), The Oxford Companion to the Mind (1987); and Raymond J. Corsini (ed.), Encyclopedia of Psychology, 4 vol. (1984). Applications and varieties of intelligence are discussed in Robert J. Sternberg and Richard K. Wagner (eds.), Practical Intelligence: Nature and Origins of Competence in the Everyday World (1986). A comprehensive but fairly elementary introduction to the field is Robert Kail and James W. Pellegrino, Human Intelligence: Perspectives and Prospects (1985). For current research in the field, articles in Psychology Today (monthly) provide coverage on a general level. Theories of intelligence For early theories, see Alfred Binet and Thodore Simon, The Development of Intelligence in Children: The Binet-Simon Scale, trans. from French (1916, reprinted 1983); Joan W. Reeves, Thinking About Thinking: Studies in the Background of Some Psychological Approaches (1965), a summary of Binet's work; and Charles E. Spearman, The Nature of Intelligence and the Principles of Cognition (1923, reprinted 1973), and The Abilities of Man: Their Nature and Measurement (1927, reissued 1970). Later theories are presented in Howard Gardner, Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983); Raymond B. Cattell, Intelligence: Its Structure, Growth, and Action (1987); Robert J. Sternberg, Beyond IQ: A Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence (1985), and The Triarchic Mind: A New Theory of Human Intelligence (1988); Michael Cole and Barbara Means, Comparative Studies of How People Think (1981); and Roger Sperry, Science and Moral Priority: Merging Mind, Brain, and Human Values (1983). Comprehensive reviews of the field are presented in Robert J. Sternberg (ed.), Handbook of Human Intelligence (1982), and Human Abilities: An Information-Processing Approach (1985); and Robert J. Sternberg and Douglas K. Detterman (eds.), What Is Intelligence?: Contemporary Viewpoints on Its Nature and Definition (1986). Development of intelligence A definitive summary of Piaget's earlier work is presented in John H. Flavell, The Developmental Psychology of Jean Piaget (1963). Piaget's works on the mechanisms of intellectual development and fundamental cognitive processes are available in English translations: Jean Piaget, The Psychology of Intelligence, trans. by Malcolm Piercy and D.E. Berlyne (1950, reprinted 1981; originally published in French, 1947); and The Essential Piaget, ed. by Howard E. Gruber and J. Jacques Vonche (1977, reprinted 1982). For other influential views, see L.S. Vygotsky, Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes, trans. from Russian, ed. by Michael Cole et al. (1978), the cognitive-contextual theory of intellectual development; and Reuven Feuerstein, The Dynamic Assessment of Retarded Performers: The Learning Potential Assessment Device, Theory, Instruments, and Techniques (1979, reprinted 1985), an analysis of the role of learning experiences in intellectual development. Measuring intelligence Early traditional approaches to evaluating intelligence are presented in Francis Galton, Hereditary Genius: An Inquiry into Its Laws and Consequences (1869, reissued 1978), and Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development (1883, reissued 1973). For American investigations at the beginning of the 20th century and their results, see Edward L. Thorndike et al., The Measurement of Intelligence (1927, reprinted 1973). Developments and applications of Binet's tradition of mental testing are described in Lewis M. Terman, The Measurement of Intelligence: An Explanation of and a Complete Guide for the Use of the Stanford Revision and Extension of the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale (1916, reprinted 1975). For later research in the field, see Philip E. Vernon, The Measurement of Abilities, 2nd ed. (1972); David Wechsler, Wechsler's Measurement and Appraisal of Adult Intelligence, 5th enl. ed., rev. by Joseph D. Matarazzo (1972); and Anne Anastasi, Psychological Testing, 6th ed. (1988). Malleability of intelligence Arguments for and against heritability as an essential trait of intelligence are presented in the works of Arthur R. Jensen, Genetics and Education (1972); John C. Loehlin and Robert C. Nichols, Heredity, Environment, & Personality: A Study of 850 Sets of Twins (1976); Philip E. Vernon, Intelligence, Heredity, and Environment (1979); and H.J. Eysenck and Leon J. Kamin, Intelligence, the Battle for the Mind (1981). Robert J. Sternberg Additional reading General works covering the intelligence sector include Tyrus G. Fain (ed.), The Intelligence Community: History, Organization, and Issues (1977), a reference work dealing primarily with the 1970s; William V. Kennedy et al., Intelligence Warfare (1983), an authoritative catalog of modern intelligence technology; Walter Laqueur, A World of Secrets: The Uses and Limits of Intelligence (1985, reissued 1993), useful for political science students; Alfred C. Maurer, Marion D. Tunstall, and James M. Keagle (eds.), IntelligencePolicy and Process (1985); Wesley K. Wark (ed.), Espionage: Past, Present, Future? (1994); Christopher Andrew and David Dilks (eds.), The Missing Dimension: Governments and Intelligence Communities in the Twentieth Century (1984), essays covering World Wars I and II and the postwar years; Roy Godson (ed.), Intelligence Requirements for the 1990s: Collection, Analysis, Counterintelligence, and Covert Action (1989); Angelo Codevilla, Informing Statecraft: Intelligence for a New Century (1992); and Abram N. Shulsky, Silent Warfare: Understanding the World of Intelligence, 2nd ed., rev. by Gary J. Schmitt (1993). Intelligence surveillance from space during the Cold War years is discussed in William E. Burrows, Deep Black: Space Espionage and National Security (1986). Two comparative analyses are Roy Godson (ed.), Comparing Foreign Intelligence: The U.S., the USSR, the U.K. & the Third World (1988); and Nigel West, Games of Intelligence: The Classified Conflict of International Espionage (1989), addressing intelligence operations in the United States, France, the former Soviet Union, Israel, and the United Kingdom. Discussions of the World War II era include William Casey, The Secret War Against Hitler (1988); and David Kahn, Hitler's Spies: German Military Intelligence in World War II (1978).Works on communications intelligence are David Kahn, The Codebreakers: The Story of Secret Writing (1967), a standard work on cryptanalysis; Ronald Lewin, The American Magic: Codes, Ciphers, and the Defeat of Japan (also published as The Other Ultra, 1982), recounting the role of signals intelligence in the Pacific in World War II, and Ultra Goes to War: The First Account of World War II's Greatest Secret Based on Official Documents (1978, reissued 1988), demonstrating how Allied access to Germany's secret communications aided victory in World War II; and James Bamford, The Puzzle Palace: A Report on America's Most Secret Agency (1982), a resourceful journalist's detailed description of the U.S. National Security Agency, which is responsible for cryptographic intelligence and security.General works focusing on U.S. intelligence include Harry Howe Ransom, The Intelligence Establishment, rev. and enlarged ed. (1970), an analysis of the evolution, functions, and problems of U.S. intelligence, with a chapter on the British experience; Mark M. Lowenthal, U.S. Intelligence: Evolution and Anatomy, 2nd ed. (1992), a practical organizational description; Jeffrey Richelson, The U.S. Intelligence Community (1985), for more advanced students; Bruce D. Berkowitz and Allan E. Goodman, Strategic Intelligence for American National Security (1989), especially useful for students of political science or public policy; Harold P. Ford, Estimative Intelligence: The Purposes and Problems of National Intelligence Estimating, rev. ed. (1993); Christopher Andrew, For the President's Eyes Only: Secret Intelligence and the American Presidency from Washington to Bush (1995); David C. Martin, Wilderness of Mirrors (1980), an insightful view of conflict between intelligence and counterintelligence within the U.S. system; Morton H. Halperin et al., The Lawless State: The Crimes of the U.S. Intelligence Agencies (1976), a detailed summary of the findings of congressional and other investigations of intelligence agency abuses; and John A. Gentry, Lost Promise: How CIA Analysis Misserves the Nation: An Intelligence Assessment (1993). Details of satellite intelligence can be found in Jeffrey Richelson, America's Secret Eyes in Space: The U.S. Keyhole Spy Satellite Program (1990). A background text covering the years prior to the formation of the CIA is Bradley F. Smith, The Shadow Warriors (1983), perhaps the best account to date of the Office of Strategic Services in World War II. CIA history is discussed in Thomas F. Troy, Donovan and the CIA: A History of the Establishment of the Central Intelligence Agency (1981); William M. Leary (ed.), The Central Intelligence Agency: History and Documents (1984), containing an authoritative overview of the CIA and important documents for the years 194781; and John Ranelagh, The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA (1986), a valuable source.Discussion of the CIA's covert activities can be found in Gregory F. Treverton, Covert Action: The Limits of Intervention in the Postwar World (1987); and John Prados, Presidents' Secret Wars: CIA and Pentagon Covert Operations Since World War II Through Iranscam (1988). Views on the CIA by insiders include Harry Rositzke, The CIA's Secret Operations: Espionage, Counterespionage, and Covert Action (1977, reprinted 1988), a former CIA official's account of secret actions; Ray S. Cline, The CIA Under Reagan, Bush & Casey: The Evolution of the Agency from Roosevelt to Reagan (1981), a former intelligence professional's description; William Colby and Peter Forbath, Honorable Men: My Life in the CIA (1978), a candid and sometimes critical account, by a former director of the CIA, of Colby's intelligence experience; Victor Marchetti and John D. Marks, The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence (1974, reissued 1989), an expression of disillusionment with the American intelligence system by two former intelligence officers; and two books written by disgruntled former CIA agents: Philip Agee, Inside the Company: CIA Diary (1975, reissued 1986); and Ralph W. McGehee, Deadly Deceits: My 25 Years in the CIA (1983). Thomas Powers, The Man Who Kept the Secrets: Richard Helms & the CIA (1979), is a journalist's astute analysis not only of Helms's intelligence career but also of many of the intelligence controversies in the United States from 1945 to 1979.The history of British intelligence is detailed in Christopher Andrew, Her Majesty's Secret Service: The Making of the British Intelligence Community (1985); and F.H. Hinsley et al., British Intelligence in the Second World War, 5 vol. (197990), an official account, based on the authors' access to secret archivesavailable also in a 1-vol. abridged version with the same title (1993). Other works include R.v. Jones, The Wizard War: British Scientific Intelligence, 19391945 (1978), an account of the role and significance of technical intelligence in World War II; and Nigel West, The Friends: Britain's Post-War Secret Intelligence Operations (1988). Bruce Page, David Leitch, and Phillip Knightley, The Philby Conspiracy (1968, reissued 1981), provides one of the most detailed accounts, by a team of journalists, of Soviet agent Kim Philby's penetration of the British secret service. Descriptions and histories of the KGB are found in Harry Rositzke, The KGB: The Eyes of Russia (1981), a general description by a former CIA professional; Brian Freemantle, KGB (1982), a popular descriptive analysis; Jeffrey Richelson, Sword and Shield: The Soviet Intelligence and Security Apparatus (1986); John Barron, KGB: The Secret Work of Soviet Secret Agents (1974), a standard history; and Christopher Andrew and Oleg Gordievsky, KGB: The Inside Story of Its Foreign Operations from Lenin to Gorbachev (1990), an in-depth history of the KGB from 1917 to the present. Viktor Suvorov (pseud.), Inside Soviet Military Intelligence (also published as Soviet Military Intelligence, 1984), offers an insider's view by a former Soviet intelligence professional.Bibliographies include Myron J. Smith, Jr., The Secret Wars, 3 vol. (198081), a comprehensive bibliography of works on secret operations, loosely defined, covering the period 193980; George C. Constantinides, Intelligence and Espionage (1983), an authoritative work with substantial annotations, discussing works published to 1981; and Neal H. Petersen, American Intelligence, 17751990 (1992), including such topics as espionage, cryptology, and counterintelligence. Harry Howe Ransom Additional reading Richard Deacon, Spyclopedia: The Comprehensive Handbook of Espionage (1987), is an original reference work providing concise information on intelligence organizations of more than 30 countries within a chronology of 25 centuries of intelligence activity. John Ranelagh, The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA, rev. ed. (1987), offers a well-documented nonpartisan historical analysis of the organization and personalities; it can be complemented by John Patrick Quirk et al., The Central Intelligence Agency: A Photographic History (1986). James Bamford, The Puzzle Palace: A Report on America's Most Secret Agency (1982), explores in a well-researched investigative framework the National Security Agency's operations, using unpublished archival and official information. A general survey is given in Mark M. Lowenthal, U.S. Intelligence: Evolution and Anatomy (1984). Gerald W. Hopple and Bruce W. Watson (eds.), The Military Intelligence Community (1986); and Scott D. Breckinridge, The CIA and the U.S. Intelligence System (1986), examine the organizations and operations of intelligence professionals and the relevant legal and ethical problems. Further discussion of the latter is available in Bruce W. Watson and Peter M. Dunn (eds.), Military Intelligence and the Universities: A Study of an Ambivalent Relationship (1984). Useful reference information is found in Joint Chiefs of Staff, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military Terms (1988); and George C. Constantinides, Intelligence and Espionage: An Analytical Bibliography (1983), an annotated list of about 500 important nonfiction works on a group of related topics. Bruce W. Watson

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