Meaning of KELVIN (OF LARGS), WILLIAM THOMSON, BARON in English

KELVIN (OF LARGS), WILLIAM THOMSON, BARON

also called (186692) Sir William Thomson born June 26, 1824, Belfast, County Antrim, Ire. [now in Northern Ireland] died Dec. 17, 1907, Netherhall, near Largs, Ayrshire, Scot. Scottish engineer, mathematician, and physicist, who profoundly influenced the scientific thought of his generation. A brief account of the life and works of Lord Kelvin follows; for a full biography, see Kelvin. William Thomson entered the University of Glasgow, where his father taught mathematics, at the age of 10. He published two mathematical papers at 16 and 17 and graduated from the University of Cambridge at 21. The following year he was awarded the chair of natural philosophy at Glasgow and remained there for the rest of his career. Thomson later became involved in the laying of the first Atlantic cable. He grew wealthy through his invention of a receiver for the submarine telegraph, and Queen Victoria knighted him. In 1892 he became Lord Kelvin. Thomson's scientific contributions include a major role in the development of the conservation law of energy; the absolute temperature scale (which is cited in kelvins); the dynamical theory of heat; the mathematical analysis of electricity and magnetism, including basic ideas for the electromagnetic theory of light; the geophysical determination of the Earth's age; and fundamental work in hydrodynamics. He published more than 600 scientific papers, received dozens of honorary degrees, was granted many patents, and served as president of the Royal Society. He died without issue (of two marriages), and his peerage became extinct. born June 26, 1824, Belfast, County Antrim, Ire. [now in Northern Ireland] died Dec. 17, 1907, Netherhall, near Largs, Ayrshire, Scot. also called (186692) Sir William Thomson Scottish engineer, mathematician, and physicist, who profoundly influenced the scientific thought of his generation. Thomson, who was knighted and raised to the peerage in recognition of his work in engineering and physics, was foremost among the small group of British scientists who helped to lay the foundations of modern physics. His contributions to science included a major role in the development of the second law of thermodynamics; the absolute temperature scale (measured in kelvins); the dynamical theory of heat; the mathematical analysis of electricity and magnetism, including the basic ideas for the electromagnetic theory of light; the geophysical determination of the age of the Earth; and fundamental work in hydrodynamics. His theoretical work on submarine telegraphy and his inventions for use on submarine cables aided Britain in capturing a preeminent place in world communication during the 19th century. The style and character of Thomson's scientific and engineering work reflected his active personality. While a student at the University of Cambridge, he was awarded silver sculls for winning the university championship in racing single-seater rowing shells. He was an inveterate traveller all of his life, spending much time on the Continent and making several trips to the United States. In later life he commuted between homes in London and Glasgow. Thomson risked his life several times during the laying of the first transatlantic cable. Thomson's worldview was based in part on the belief that all phenomena that caused forcesuch as electricity, magnetism, and heatwere the result of invisible material in motion. This belief placed him in the forefront of those scientists who opposed the view that forces were produced by imponderable fluids. By the end of the century, however, Thomson, having persisted in his belief, found himself in opposition to the positivistic outlook that proved to be a prelude to 20th-century quantum mechanics and relativity. Consistency of worldview eventually placed him counter to the mainstream of science. But Thomson's consistency enabled him to apply a few basic ideas to a number of areas of study. He brought together disparate areas of physicsheat, thermodynamics, mechanics, hydrodynamics, magnetism, and electricityand thus played a principal role in the great and final synthesis of 19th-century science, which viewed all physical change as energy-related phenomena. Thomson was also the first to suggest that there were mathematical analogies between kinds of energy. His success as a synthesizer of theories about energy places him in the same position in 19th-century physics as Sir Isaac Newton has in 17th-century physics or Albert Einstein in 20th-century physics. All of these great synthesizers prepared the ground for the next grand leap forward in science.

Britannica English vocabulary.      Английский словарь Британика.