Meaning of STATISTICS: CHINA in English

STATISTICS: CHINA

China Official name: Chung-hua Jen-min Kung-ho-kuo (People's Republic of China). Form of government: single-party people's republic with one legislative house (National People's Congress ). Chief of state: President. Head of government: Premier. Capital: Peking (Beijing). Official language: Mandarin Chinese. Official religion: none. Monetary unit: 1 Renminbi (yuan) (Y) = 10 jiao = 100 fen; valuation (Sept. 25, 1998) 1 U.S.$ = Y 8.28; 1 = Y 14.10. Demography Population (1998): 1,242,980,000. Density (1998): persons per sq mi 336.3, persons per sq km 129.8. Urban-rural (1997): urban 32.0%; rural 68.0%. Sex distribution (1995): male 51.03%; female 48.97%. Age breakdown (1990): under 15, 27.7%; 15-29, 31.0%; 30-44, 20.7%; 45-59, 12.0%; 60-74, 6.9%; 75 and over, 1.7%. Population projection: (2000) 1,263,098,000; (2010) 1,341,848,000. Doubling time: 77 years. Ethnic composition (1990): Han (Chinese) 91.96%; Chuang 1.37%; Manchu 0.87%; Hui 0.76%; Miao 0.65%; Uighur 0.64%; Yi 0.58%; Tuchia 0.50%; Mongolian 0.42%; Tibetan 0.41%; Puyi 0.23%; Tung 0.22%; Yao 0.18%; Korean 0.17%; Pai 0.14%; Hani 0.11%; Kazak 0.10%; Tai 0.09%; Li 0.09%; other 0.51%. Religious affiliation (1980): nonreligious 51.9%; Chinese folk-religionist 20.1%; atheist 12.0%; Buddhist 8.5%; Christian 6.0%; Muslim 1.4%; other 0.1%. Major cities (1990): Shanghai 7,496,509; Peking 5,769,607; Tientsin 4,574,689; Shen-yang 3,603,712; Wu-han 3,284,229; Canton 2,914,281; Harbin 2,443,398; Chungking (Chongqing) 2,266,772; Nanking 2,090,204; Sian 1,959,044; Talien (Dalian) 1,723,302; Ch'eng-tu 1,713,255; Ch'ang-ch'un 1,679,270; T'ai-yan 1,533,884; Tsinan 1,480,915; Ch'ing-tao (Qingdao) 1,459,195; An-shan (Anshan) 1,203,986; Fu-shun 1,202,388; Lan-chou 1,194,640; Cheng-chou 1,159,679; Tzu-po (Zibo) 1,138,074; K'un-ming 1,127,411. Households (1995). Average rural household size 4.5; urban household size 3.2. Family households (1990): 277,390,000 (99.4%); collective 1,671,000 (0.6%). Vital statistics Birth rate per 1,000 population (1997): 16.4 (world avg. 25.0). Death rate per 1,000 population (1997): 7.1 (world avg. 9.3). Natural increase rate per 1,000 population (1997): 9.3 (world avg. 15.7). Total fertility rate (avg. births per childbearing woman; 1997): 1.8. Marriage rate per 1,000 population (1995): 7.7. Divorce rate per 1,000 population (1995): 0.9. Life expectancy at birth (1997): male 68.0 years; female 72.0 years. Major causes of death per 100,000 population (percentage distribution; 1995){1}: diseases of the circulatory system 22.2%; malignant neoplasms (cancers) 21.9%; diseases of the respiratory system 15.7%; diseases of the heart 15.3%; injuries and poisoning 6.9%; digestive diseases 3.3%. Social indicators Educational attainment (1990). Percentage of population age 25 and over having: no schooling 29.3%; incomplete primary 34.3%; completed primary 34.4%; postsecondary 2.0%. Quality of working life (1991). Average workweek: 48 hours. Annual rate per 100,000 workers for: injury or accident, n.a.; industrial illness, n.a.; death, n.a. Funds for pensions and social welfare relief (1995): Y 154,180,000,000. Average days lost to labour stoppages per 1,000 workdays: n.a. Average duration of journey to work: n.a. Method of transport: n.a. Rate per 1,000 workers of discouraged (unemployed no longer seeking work): n.a. Access to services. Proportion of communes having access to electricity (1979) 87.1%. Percentage of urban population with: safe public water supply (1995) 93.0%; public sewage collection, n.a.; public fire protection, n.a. Social participation. Eligible voters participating in last national election: n.a. Population participating in voluntary work: n.a. Trade union membership in total labour force (1991): 17.9%. Practicing religious population in total affiliated population: n.a. Social deviance. Annual reported arrest rate per 100,000 population (1986) for: property violation 20.7; infringing personal rights 7.2; disruption of social administration 3.3; endangering public security 1.0{2}. Leisure. Favourite leisure activities: n.a. Material well-being (1995). Urban families possessing (number per family): bicycles 1.9; televisions 1.2; washing machines 0.9; refrigerators 0.7; sewing machines 0.6; cameras 0.3. Rural families possessing (number per family): bicycles 1.5; televisions 0.8; sewing machines 0.7; washing machines 0.2. National economy Gross national product (at current market prices; 1996): U.S.$906,079,000,000 (U.S.$750 per capita). Budget (1995). Revenue: Y 736,661,000,000 (taxes 93.7%; funds collected for energy and transport projects and others 6.3%). Expenditures: Y 791,438,000,000 (culture, education, and public health 21.5%; capital construction 11.2%; government administration 8.1%; enterprise development 6.7%; agricultural development 6.6%; defense 4.7%; urban public works 3.7%). Public debt (external, outstanding; 1996): U.S.$102,260,000,000. Tourism: receipts from visitors (1995) U.S.$8,733,000,000; expenditures by nationals abroad U.S.$3,688,000,000. Production (metric tons except as noted). Agriculture, forestry, fishing (1996): grains--rice 197,200,000, corn (maize) 127,810,000, wheat 110,315,000, sorghum 4,098,000, barley 3,500,000, millet 2,701,000; oilseeds--soybeans 13,010,000, peanuts (groundnuts) 10,230,000, rapeseed 9,166,000, sunflower seeds 1,290,000; fruits and nuts--watermelons 21,708,000, apples 17,058,000, oranges 8,050,000, cantaloupes 5,962,000, pears 5,921,000; other--sweet potatoes 100,196,000, sugarcane 70,840,000, potatoes 36,769,000, sugar beets 16,726,000, cabbage 16,214,000, tomatoes 15,532,000, cucumbers 13,351,000, seed cotton 12,609,000, onions 9,630,000, eggplants 9,325,000, garlic 8,574,000, tobacco leaves 3,210,000, tea 614,000; livestock (number of live animals) 452,199,000 pigs, 149,908,000 goats, 127,261,000 sheep, 108,910,000 cattle, 23,315,000 water buffalo, 10,745,000 asses, 10,071,000 horses, 2,902,000,000 chickens, 483,000,000 ducks; roundwood (1995) 297,653,000 cu m; fish catch (1995) 24,433,321. Mining and quarrying (1996): metal concentrates--zinc 1,119,000, copper 906,000, lead 530,000, antimony 99,000, tin 56,000, tungsten 24,000; metal ores--iron ore 250,000,000, bauxite 5,500,000, manganese ore 5,000,000 {3}, silver 250{3}, gold 140{3}; nonmetals--salt 28,990,000, gypsum 7,500,000, phosphates 7,000,000{3}, talc 2,500,000, fluorspar 2,000,000, barite 1,500,000, graphite 350,000{3}, asbestos 250,000. Manufacturing (1996): cement 490,000,000; rolled steel 86,110,000; chemical fertilizer 26,600,000; paper and paperboard 24,000,000{3}; sulfuric acid 18,890,000; sugar 6,500,000; cotton yarn 4,900,000; cotton fabrics 22,120,000,000 m; cigarettes 34,420,000 cases; colour television sets 21,090,000 units; household washing machines 9,448,000 units{3}; household refrigerators 9,280,000 units; motor vehicles 1,490,000 units. Construction (1995): residential 1,074,330,000 sq m; nonresidential 381,670,000 sq m. Distribution of industrial production (percentage of total value of output by sector; 1978 ): state-operated enterprises 80.6% (34.0%); collectives 19.2% (36.6%); privately operated enterprises 0.2% (29.4%). Retail sales (percentage of total sales by sector; 1978 ): state-operated enterprises 90.5% (29.8%); collectives 7.4% (19.3%); privately operated enterprises 2.1% (50.9%). Energy production (consumption): electricity (kW-hr; 1994) 928,083,000,000 (926,037,000,000); coal (metric tons; 1994) 1,239,902,000 (1,231,928,000); crude petroleum (barrels; 1994) 1,069,320,000 (1,024,375,000); petroleum products (metric tons; 1994) 106,629,000 (114,972,000); natural gas (cu m; 1994) 17,540,000,000 (17,540,000,000). Household income and expenditure. Average household size (1995) 3.7; rural household 4.5, urban household 3.2. Average annual income per household Y 11,555; rural household Y 10,474, urban household Y 13,851. Sources of income: rural household (1995)--income from household businesses 80.3%, wages 15.2%, other 4.5%; urban household (1995)--wages 80.6%, business income 5.7%, other 13.7%. Expenditure (1995): rural household--food 58.6%, housing 13.9%, cultural activities 7.8%, clothing 6.9%, household materials 5.2%, health 3.2%, transportation 2.6%; urban household--food 49.9%, clothing 13.5%, cultural activities 8.8%, household materials 8.4%, housing 7.1%, transportation 4.8%, health 3.1%. Population economically active (1995): total 696,600,000; activity rate of total population 57.8% (participation rates: over ages 15, 76.8%{4}; female 49.7%{4}; unemployed 10.4%). Urban workforce by sector 1978 (1995): state enterprises 74,500,000 (109,550,000); collectives 20,000,000 (30,760,000); self-employment or privately run enterprises 150,000 (8,770,000). Land use (1994): forested 14.0%; meadows and pastures 42.9%; agricultural and under permanent cultivation 10.3%; other 32.8%. Foreign trade{5} Imports (1995): U.S.$132,078,000,000 (machinery and transport equipment 39.9%; products of textile industries, rubber and metal products 21.8%; chemical and related products 13.1%; inedible raw materials 7.7%; food and live animals 4.6%; mineral fuel and lubricants 3.9%). Major import sources: Japan 22.0%; United States 12.2%; Taiwan 11.2%; South Korea 7.8%; Hong Kong 6.5%; Germany 6.1%; Russia 2.9%; Singapore 2.6%; Italy 2.4%; France 2.0%; Australia 2.0%. Exports (1995): U.S.$148,770,000,000 (products of textile industries, rubber and metal products 21.7%; machinery and transport equipment 21.1%; food and live animals 6.7%; chemicals and allied products 6.1%; mineral fuels and lubricants 3.6%; inedible raw materials 2.9%). Major export destinations: Hong Kong 24.2%; Japan 19.1%; United States 16.6%; South Korea 4.5%; Germany 3.8%; Singapore 2.4%; The Netherlands 2.2%; Taiwan 2.1%. Transport Transport. Railroads (1995): length 45,319 mi, 72,934 km; passenger-mi 220,319,000,000, passenger-km 354,570,000,000; short ton-mi cargo 881,539,000,000, metric ton-km cargo 1,287,000,000,000. Roads (1995): total length 718,931 mi, 1,157,009 km (paved 90%). Vehicles (1995): passenger cars 4,179,000; trucks and buses 5,213,270. Merchant marine (1992): vessels (100 gross tons and over) 2,390; total deadweight tonnage 20,657,996. Air transport (1995): passenger-mi 42,334,000,000, passenger-km 68,130,000,000; short ton-mi cargo 1,527,000,000, metric ton-km cargo 2,230,000,000; airports (1996) with scheduled flights 113. Education and health Literacy (1995): total population age 15 and over literate 81.5%; males literate 89.9%; females literate 72.7%. Health (1995): physicians 1,918,000 (1 per 628 persons); hospital beds 3,141,000 (1 per 384 persons); infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births (1997) 39. Food (1995): daily per capita caloric intake 2,741 (vegetable products 82%, animal products 18%); 116% of FAO recommended minimum requirement. Military Total active duty personnel (1997): 2,840,000 (army 73.6%, navy 9.9%, air force 16.5%). Military expenditure as percentage of GNP (1995): 2.3% (world 2.8%); per capita expenditure U.S.$53. {1} Based on urban sample population. {2} Excludes arrests for anti-Communist activities. {3} 1995. {4} 1987. {5} Imports and exports f.o.b.

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