Meaning of STATISTICS: INDIA in English

STATISTICS: INDIA

India Official name: Bharat (Hindi); Republic of India (English). Form of government: multiparty federal republic with two legislative houses (Council of States , House of the People ). Chief of state: President. Head of government: Prime Minister. Capital: New Delhi. Official languages: Hindi; English. Official religion: none. Monetary unit: 1 Indian rupee (Re, plural Rs) = 100 paise; valuation (Sept. 25, 1998) 1 U.S.$ = Rs 42.51; 1 = Rs 72.37. Demography Population (1998): 984,004,000. Density (1998){3}: persons per sq mi 805.1, persons per sq km 310.8. Urban-rural (1995): urban 26.8%; rural 73.2%. Sex distribution (1995): male 51.64%; female 48.36%. Age breakdown (1995): under 15, 35.2%; 15-29, 27.2%; 30-44, 19.1%; 45-59, 11.2%; 60-74, 5.9%; 75 and over, 1.4%. Population projection: (2000) 1,017,645,000; (2010) 1,182,000,000. Doubling time: 43 years. Linguistic composition (1991){4}: Hindi 27.58% (including associated languages and dialects, 39.85%); Bengali 8.22%; Telugu 7.80%; Marathi 7.38%; Tamil 6.26%; Urdu 5.13%; Gujarati 4.81%; Kannada 3.87%; Malayalam 3.59%; Oriya 3.32%; Punjabi 2.76%; Assamese 1.55%; Bhili/Bhilodi 0.66%; Santhali 0.62%; Kashmiri 0.47%{5}; Gondi 0.25%; Sindhi 0.25%; Nepali 0.25%; Konkani 0.21%; Tulu 0.18%; Kurukh 0.17%; Manipuri 0.15%; Bodo 0.14%; Khandeshi 0.12%; other 3.26%. Hindi (66.00%) and English (19.00%) are also spoken as lingua francas (second languages). Major cities (1991): (urban agglomerations; 1995) Greater Mumbai (Greater Bombay) 9,925,891 (15,093,000); Delhi 7,206,704 (9,882,000); Calcutta 4,399,819 (11,673,000); Chennai (Madras) 3,841,396 (5,906,000); Bangalore 3,302,296 (4,749,000); Hyderabad 3,145,939 (5,343,000); Ahmadabad 2,954,526 (3,688,000); Kanpur 1,879,420 (2,356,000); Nagpur 1,624,752 (1,847,000); Lucknow 1,619,115 (2,029,000); Pune 1,566,651 (2,940,000); New Delhi{6} 301,297. Religious affiliation (1995): Hindu 81.3%; Muslim 12.0%, of which Sunni 9.0%, Shi'i 3.0%; Christian 2.3%, of which Protestant 1.1%, Roman Catholic 1.0%; Sikh 1.9%; Buddhist 0.8%; Jain 0.4%; Zoroastrian 0.01%; other 1.3%. Households (1991){7}. Total households 151,032,898. Average household size 5.6; 1-2 persons 12.1%, 3-5 persons 44.4%, 6-8 persons 30.5%, 9 or more persons 13.0%. Average number of rooms per household 2.2; 1 room 40.5%, 2 rooms 30.6%, 3 rooms 13.8%, 4 rooms 7.1%, 5 rooms 3.2%, 6 or more rooms 3.9%, unspecified number of rooms 0.9%. Average number of persons per room 2.6. Shelterless (homeless) population estimated (1987) at more than 100,000,000. Vital statistics Birth rate per 1,000 population (1996): 25.9 (world avg. 25.0). Death rate per 1,000 population (1996): 9.6 (world avg. 9.3). Natural increase rate per 1,000 population (1996): 16.3 (world avg. 15.7). Total fertility rate (avg. births per childbearing woman; 1996): 3.2. Marital status of male (female) population age 6 and over (1992-93): single 48.3% (37.1%); married 47.5% (55.2%); widowed 3.6% (7.2%); divorced or separated 0.6% (0.5%). Life expectancy at birth (1996): male 59.1 years; female 60.3 years. Major causes of death per 100,000 population (1987){8}: diseases of the circulatory system 227; infectious and parasitic diseases 215; diseases of the respiratory system 108; certain conditions originating in the perinatal period 108; accidents, homicide, and other violence 102; diseases of the digestive system 48; diseases of the nervous system 43; malignant neoplasms (cancers) 41; endocrine, metabolic, and nutritional disorders 30; diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs 25; ill-defined conditions 129. Social indicators Educational attainment (1981){9}. Percentage of population age 25 and over having: no formal schooling (illiterate) 64.8%; no formal schooling (literate) 1.0%; some primary education 7.1%; completed primary 10.9%; some secondary 6.2%; completed secondary 7.1%; higher vocational 0.4%; completed undergraduate degree 2.5%. Quality of working life. Average workweek (1989): 42 hours{10}. Rate of fatal (nonfatal) injuries per 100,000 industrial workers (1989) 17 (3,625){10}. Employees covered under Employee's State Insurance Scheme (1991) 6,070,000; number of beneficiaries 26,749,000{10}. Agricultural workers in servitude to creditors (early 1990s) 10-20%. Access to services (1991). Percentage of total (urban, rural) households having access to: electricity for lighting purposes 42.4% (75.8%, 30.5%); attached toilet or nearby latrine 23.7% (63.9%, 9.5%). Source of drinking water: piped water 32.3%, well 32.2%, hand pump or tube well 30.0%, river or canal 2.0%, public tank 1.3%, other 2.2%. Social participation. Eligible voters participating in last (April/May 1996) national election: 57.9%. Trade union membership (early 1990s): c. 9,000,000. Social deviance (1990){11}. Offense rate per 100,000 population for: murder 4.1; dacoity (gang robbery) 1.3; theft and housebreaking 56.6; riots 12.0. Rate of suicide per 100,000 population (1991): 9.0. Material well-being (1994). Households possessing: black and white television receivers 18.8%, colour television receivers 6.3%, videocassette recorders 1.3%, refrigerators 6.9%, washing machines 2.3%. National economy Gross national product (1996): U.S.$357,759,000,000 (U.S.$380 per capita). Budget (1996-97). Revenue: Rs 1,982,500,000,000 (tax revenue 59.9%, of which excise taxes 23.5%, customs duties 22.4%, corporation taxes 9.9%; nontax revenue 40.1%, of which economic services 23.5%, interest receipts 10.8%). Expenditures: Rs 2,297,300,000,000 (interest payments and debt servicing 26.1%; transportation 11.5%; grants to state governments 10.1%; defense 8.6%, communications 6.1%; agriculture 4.9%; social services 4.3%). Public debt (external, outstanding; 1996): U.S.$74,406,000,000. Production (in '000 metric tons except as noted). Agriculture, forestry, fishing (1996): sugarcane 255,000, cereals 214,082 (of which rice 120,012, wheat 62,620, sorghum 10,500, corn 8,660, pearl millet 7,000{12}, finger millet 2,850{12}; fruits 40,197 (of which mangoes 10,000, bananas 9,935, oranges 2,000, lemons and limes 1,700, apples 1,200), oilseeds 27,361 (of which peanuts [groundnuts] 8,000, rapeseed 6,000, cottonseed 5,101, soybeans 4,200, sunflower seeds 1,450, castor beans 1,000); pulses 15,414 (of which chickpeas 6,000, pigeon peas 3,000), coconuts 8,700, seed cotton 7,651, cotton lint 2,550, jute 1,500, tea 715, tobacco 512, natural rubber 435, betel 248, ginger 210, pepper 46; livestock (number of live animals; 1996) 196,003,000 cattle, 120,270,000 goats, 80,102,000 water buffalo, 45,390,000 sheep, 14,855,000 pigs, 1,600,000 asses, 1,520,000 camels; roundwood (1995) 299,163,000 cu m, of which fuelwood 259,503,000 cu m, industrial roundwood 24,852,000; fish catch (metric tons; 1995) 4,905,921, of which marine fish 2,225,875, freshwater fish 2,207,318, crustaceans 364,237, cephalopods 103,739. Mining and quarrying (1995-96): limestone 94,032; iron ore 66,576; bauxite 5,448; manganese 720 {13}; chromium 500{13}; zinc 171{13}; copper 57{13}; lead 42{13}; gold 65,600 troy oz; diamonds 29,900 carats. Manufacturing (in '000 metric tons except as noted; 1995-96): cement 69,032; finished steel 14,533; steel ingots 14,700{14}; refined sugar 14,788; nitrogenous fertilizers 7,950{14}; paper and paperboard 3,100{14}; soda ash 1,465; jute textiles 1,364{14}; aluminum 527; nylon and polyester yarns 357{14}; bicycles 9,426,000 units; motorcycles and scooters 2,035,000 units; power-driven pumps 513,000 units{14}; passenger cars and jeeps 414,200 units; passenger buses and trucks 259,100 units; cotton cloth 17,033,000,000 metres{14}; other important manufactured products include drugs and pharmaceuticals, computer software, gold jewelry, and silk goods. Construction (value of new construction in Rs; 1989-90): 563,670,000,000. Energy production (consumption): electricity (kW-hr; 1995-96) 380,100,000,000 ( 385,902,000,000); coal (metric tons; 1995) 287,676,000 ( 284,497,000); crude petroleum (barrels; 1995-96) 264,845,000 ( 434,149,000); petroleum products (metric tons; 1994) 43,575,000 (56,722,000); natural gas (cu m; 1995) 17,022,000,000 ( 20,388,000,000). Land use (1994): forested 23.0%; meadows and pastures 3.8%; agricultural and under permanent cultivation 57.1%; other 16.1%. Population economically active (1991): total 314,131,370; activity rate of total population 37.5% (participation rates: over age 15 60.7%; female 28.6%; unemployed{15}). Household income and expenditure. Average household size (1991){7} 5.6; sources of income (1984-85): salaries and wages 42.2%, self-employed 39.7%, interest 8.6%, profits and dividends 6.0%, rent 3.5%; expenditure (1993-94): food and beverages 50.9%, transportation and communications 13.0%, clothing and footwear 9.8%, housing 5.7%, energy 4.2%. Service enterprises (net value added at factor cost in Rs '000,000; 1992-93): wholesale and retail trade 766,500; transport and storage 420,610; community and social services 368,850; construction 358,330; finance 242,380; real estate and business services 215,840; electricity, gas, and steam 137,080. Tourism: receipts from visitors (1995) U.S.$2,754,000,000; expenditures by nationals abroad (1994) U.S.$408,000,000. Foreign trade{16}{17} Imports (1995-96): Rs 1,216,470,000,000 (mineral fuels and lubricants 20.7%; nonelectrical machinery 18.1%; precious and semiprecious stones 5.7%; electronic goods 5.1%; organic chemicals 4.7%). Major import sources: U.S. 10.5%; Germany 8.6%; Japan 6.6%; Saudi Arabia 5.5%; Kuwait 5.4%; U.K. 5.3%; Belgium 4.7%; United Arab Emirates 4.4%; Russia 3.3%. Exports (1995-96): Rs 1,064,650,000,000 (agricultural and allied products 19.1%; cut and polished diamonds and jewelry 16.6%; ready-made garments 11.6%; machinery, transport equipment, metal products, iron and steel, and electronic components 11.4%; cotton yarn, fabrics, and thread 8.1%; chemicals and chemical products 7.4%; leather and leather manufactures 5.4%). Major export destinations: U.S. 17.4%; Japan 7.0%; U.K. 6.3%; Germany 6.2%; Hong Kong 5.7%; United Arab Emirates 4.5%; Belgium 3.5%; Russia 3.3%; Bangladesh 3.3%; Italy 3.2%. Transport Transport. Railroads (1994-95): route length 38,935 mi, 62,660 km; passenger-mi 198,500,000,000, passenger-km 319,400,000,000; short ton-mi cargo 173,268,000,000, metric ton-km cargo 252,967,000,000. Roads (1995): total length 1,248,700 mi, 2,009,600 km (paved 50%). Vehicles (1995): passenger cars 2,720,000; trucks and buses 2,207,000,000. Air transport (1995){18}: passenger-mi 12,563,000,000, passenger-km 20,219,000,000; short ton-mi cargo 437,871,000, metric ton-km cargo 639,280,000; airports (1996) with scheduled flights 66. Education and health Literacy (1995): total population age 15 and over literate 315,600,000 (52.0%); males literate 205,100,000 (65.5%); females literate 110,500,000 (37.7%). Health (1992): physicians 410,875 (1 per 2,173 persons); hospital beds 642,103 (1 per 1,357 persons); infant mortality rate (1996) 71.1 Food (1995): daily per capita caloric intake 2,388 (vegetable products 93%, animal products 7%); 108% of FAO recommended minimum requirement. Military Total active duty personnel (1996): 1,145,000 (army 85.6%, navy 4.8%, air force 9.6%); personnel in paramilitary forces for border security 282,000. Military expenditure as percentage of GNP (1995): 2.4% (world 2.8%); per capita expenditure U.S.$8. {1} Council of States can have a maximum of 250 members; a maximum of 12 of these members may be nominated by the president. {2} Includes 2 nonelective seats. {3} Excludes 46,976 sq mi (121,667 sq km) of territory claimed by India as part of Jammu and Kashmir but occupied by Pakistan or China; inland water constitutes 9.0% of total area of India (including all of Indian-claimed Jammu and Kashmir). {4} Mother tongue unless otherwise noted. {5} 1981. {6} Within Delhi urban agglomeration. {7} Excludes Jammu and Kashmir. {8} Projected rates based on about 3.5% of total deaths (317,392 registered deaths out of an estimated total of nearly 9,000,000 deaths). {9} Excludes Assam. {10} Data apply to the workers employed in the "organized sector" only (28 million in 1994, of which 20 million are employed in the public sector and 8 million are employed in the private sector); few legal protections exist for the other 348 million workers in the "unorganized sector." {11} Crimes reported to National Crime Records Bureau by police authorities of state governments. {12} 1995-96. {13} Approximate metal content of ore. {14} 1994-95. {15} Average number of registered unemployed during the first quarter of 1996 was 36,882,000. {16} Imports c.i.f.; exports f.o.b. {17} Fiscal year beginning April 1. {18} Air-India, Indian Airlines, and Jet Airways only.

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