Meaning of 'URABI PASHA in English

'URABI PASHA

born 1839, near az-Zaqaziq, Egypt died , Sept. 21, 1911, Cairo 'Urabi also spelled Arabi, in full Ahmad 'urabi Pasha Al-misri Egyptian nationalist who led a socialpolitical movement that expressed the discontent of the Egyptian educated classes, army officials, and peasantry with foreign control. Born of peasant stock, 'Urabi studied in Cairo at al-Azhar, the leading institution of Islamic learning in the Middle East. Conscripted into the army, he rose to the rank of colonel after serving as a commissariat officer during the EgyptianEthiopian war of 187576. In 1879 he participated in the officers' revolt against the khedive Isma'il Pasha. Early in his career 'Urabi joined a secret society within the army with the object of eliminating the Turkish and Circassian officers who monopolized the highest ranks. In 1881 he led a revolt against this dominance. The following year, intervention by the European powers and the dispute about the rights of the Egyptian Assembly concerning budget controls led to the formation of the nationalist ministry of Mahmud Sami al-Barudi, with 'Urabi as minister of war. 'Urabi emerged as the national hero under the slogan Misr li'l Misriyin (Egypt for Egyptians). Khedive Tawfiq, threatened by 'Urabi's increasing popularity, requested the assistance of the French and British, who promptly staged a naval demonstration in the bay of Alexandria. Riots then broke out in Alexandria; when the British fleet bombarded the city (July 1882), 'Urabi, who was commander in chief of the Egyptian army, organized the resistance and proclaimed the khedive a traitor. 'Urabi's army was defeated at at-Tall al-Kabir (Sept. 13, 1882) by British troops that had landed at Ismailia under the command of Sir Garnet Wolseley. 'Urabi Pasha was captured, court-martialed, and sentenced to death, but, with British intervention, the sentence was changed to exile in Ceylon (Sri Lanka). He was permitted to return to Egypt in 1901.

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