Meaning of CARBON in English

CARBON

noun

COLLOCATIONS FROM OTHER ENTRIES

a carbon/nitrogen/sulphur etc compound

Use a copper compound to protect the trees from pests.

carbon copy

The robbery is a carbon copy of one that took place last year.

carbon credit

carbon dating

carbon dioxide

carbon footprint

There are lots of ways you can reduce your carbon footprint .

carbon monoxide

carbon neutral

Costa Rica wants to be the first developing country to become carbon neutral.

carbon offsetting

There are websites that let you buy carbon offsets.

carbon paper

carbon sink

carbon tax

carbon taxes on fossil fuels

reduce...carbon footprint

There are lots of ways you can reduce your carbon footprint .

sulphur dioxide/carbon dioxide/greenhouse gas etc emissions

The treaty calls for a 30% reduction in sulphur dioxide emissions.

zero carbon

a zero carbon house

COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS

■ ADJECTIVE

activated

The residue, a carbon-based char, can be used instead of activated carbon in, for instance, sewage works.

For chemical filtration, which usually means packing with an absorptive medium such as activated carbon or some sort of resin.

Some potential uses of conventional biological reactors, insitu bioremediation, and activated carbon adsorption are summarised in Table 1.

Chemical filtration - for keeping butterfly and angelfish - means activated carbon .

The life of activated carbon is limited - factors like gallonage and stocking levels affecting it.

Make sure the protein skimmer is working properly and renew the activated carbon .

I would also advise a canister filter fitted with activated carbon .

atmospheric

As levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane increase, the greenhouse effect will trap increasing amounts of heat.

Estimating the future rate of energy growth is of critical importance for predicting future concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

Disturbed soils are an additional major source of atmospheric carbon .

global

The estimated global emissions of carbon from fossil fuels alone have tripled since 1950.

But hardly anyone has looked at the global carbon budget in detail.

high

The frescos also had high carbon levels, and these were responsible for the darkening of the paintings.

The residual gases including nitrogen, higher hydrocarbons carbon dioxide, etc. constitute about 2 percent.

Cast Iron Iron with a high carbon content.

The mixture's high carbon monoxide content makes it extremely lethal.

This is because of the higher levels of carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired stations compared with natural gas.

Under high pressure, carbon can turn into diamonds.

low

It is closely related to peat and has a relatively low carbon content and high moisture content.

The tyres contain only low levels of carbon and no dioxins; potentially harmful products of burning tyres are to be recycled.

Existing catalytic converters can produce extremely low hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide outputs only in optimal conditions.

Wrought Iron Iron possessing a very low carbon content, which makes it tough and malleable.

organic

Total organic carbon is made up of non-hazardous materials.

Oil, gas, and coal, composed of organic carbon compounds, are found as economic deposits in sedimentary rocks.

Reactivation facilities thermally destroy organic contaminates on carbon so that the carbon can be reused.

reducing

The government has committed itself to reducing carbon dioxide emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000.

solid

Traditionally, this cooling requirement has been accomplished using slices of solid carbon dioxide, better known as dry ice.

Again, solid carbon is made as a byproduct.

A sink is a natural way of capturing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and turning it back into solid carbon.

In that way, all the oxygen can be recovered, with solid carbon dust as the only byproduct.

Thus, unlike water, the solid carbon dioxide is denser than the liquid.

An increase of applied pressure thus favours formation of solid carbon dioxide.

Blown rubber forefoot outsole with solid carbon rubber heel.

■ NOUN

atom

Buckyballs, of buckminsterfullerene, are soccer-ball-shaped assemblages of 60 carbon atoms .

Any molecule with this group attached to a carbon atom is called an alcohol.

The two substances differ from each other only in the geometric pattern with which the carbon atoms are packed.

In this group of ions the carbon atom is surrounded by three oxygen atoms in a planar triangle.

In diamonds, the carbon atoms are packed in a tetrahedral pattern which is extremely stable.

The hydrogen-to-carbon atom ratio is perhaps a better index.

This leaves one electron on each carbon atom unaccounted for.

This is illustrated in Figure 4. 2 which shows the hydrogen-to-carbon atom ratio of various hydrocarbon.

content

It is closely related to peat and has a relatively low carbon content and high moisture content.

Cast Iron Iron with a high carbon content .

It would be based on the carbon content of fuels and would have the biggest effect on the coal industry.

The total carbon content has, therefore, been taken as the carbon content and quoted as a percentage weight.

The percentage carbon content of a coal is important because the calorific value depends on it.

Half the new tax would be on the carbon content of fossil fuel and half on the energy content.

copy

The legal arrangements for the transfer are virtual carbon copies of those agreed for Hong Kong.

The new Bernard's is not a carbon copy of the original.

Photocopy or make carbon copies of all transcribed texts.

He found two carbon copies of such a list, neatly typed.

To her annoyance Holly pushed the carbon copy on to Rain's desk and went away with the other.

After the card has been used, ask for carbon copies and destroy them.

It was a carbon copy of an attack 18 months ago.

He was as near as dammit to being a stylistic carbon copy of Hell.

dioxide

Atmospheric carbon dioxide in the northern hemisphere is increasing measurably.

The failure of the Martian greenhouse effect is obviously not due to any shortage of carbon dioxide !

It estimates that in that time it cut its carbon dioxide emissions by more than 20 percent.

They produce bubbles of carbon dioxide gas, which push the cake or bread batter up.

When we breathe we take oxygen into the body and expel the waste gas, carbon dioxide , or CO2.

And it probably always will, since no conceivable technology can prevent petroleum combustion from producing carbon dioxide .

The corresponding carbon dioxide emissions were down by a similar amount.

Additionally, carbon dioxide is produced as a result of continued metabolism.

emission

Some attacked the fact that faster growth has been environmentally unsound, creating excessive carbon emissions and destroying natural habitats.

Their purpose is to encourage countries to ratify the Kyoto protocol on reducing carbon emissions .

He has also proposed yearly progress reports updating targets on everything from recycling to carbon emissions .

Can energy efficiency and a greater dependence on natural gas cut carbon emissions sufficiently on their own?

Levels have fallen from 60.2 percent of total national carbon emissions to 49.5 percent in 1989.

The report was commissioned from scientists in five countries in order to assess the impact of dramatic reductions in carbon emissions .

The government predicts that on current trends carbon emissions will rise from 160 million tons to 170 million tons in the 1990s.

fibre

The canopy, which hinges forwards, is made of flat sheets of poly-carbonate, framed with carbon fibre for stiffness.

The body is aluminium and carbon fibre , and the chassis is glued together for extra fly-away lightness.

These carbon fibre rollers are used by firms manufacturing machines for a variety of uses including films, textiles and paper.

They are made by winding resin-laced strands of carbon fibre round a mandrel and then curing in an oven.

One of them big mining companies did it, only they used carbon fibre .

These chitin fibres are embedded in matrix materials, making the wall material like a carbon fibre composite.

And because the body is made from light carbon fibre , the result is a staggering 380 brake horsepower per ton.

The architects say the carbon fibre structure is a design for the nineties.

monoxide

The World Health Organisation has published guidelines for safe emissions of carbon monoxide .

This surface reaction of oxygen and carbon releases carbon monoxide which migrates outward and upon encountering oxygen burns to carbon dioxide.

Other fires Gas or paraffin heaters should only ever be used in well ventilated rooms as they give off carbon monoxide .

Hauserman said a First Alert detector sounded in his office, where the only source of carbon monoxide is the nearby interstate.

The products of coal gasification include carbon monoxide , carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methane and nitrogen.

The standard requires detectors to sound before carbon monoxide levels exceed 100 parts per million for 90 minutes.

The only raw materials needed are carbon monoxide and methanol.

The air in El Paso is arguably the dirtiest in Texas, violating federal standards for ozone, carbon monoxide and particulates.

paper

Carbonless paper coated with chemicals and dye which will produce copies without carbon paper.

A final covering of aluminium foil or carbon paper reduces the risk of detection by X-ray machines.

They use that magic carbon paper .

The flattened shape is transferred to a sheet of leather by mangling carbon paper between the two.

A smell I had waited all day to smell-old and sweet, the carbon paper .

Books and papers were either remembered or copied, sometimes ten typed sheets at once, on carbon paper.

sink

That failure will most likely be papered over with creative accounting, shifting definitions of carbon sinks , and so on.

The biggest source of contention is carbon sinks .

But the science of carbon sinks is terrifyingly imprecise, scientists warn.

tax

What about plans for a carbon tax ?

The carbon tax could lead to a doubling of prices for fossil fuels.

Proposals for a worldwide carbon tax and the phasing out of coal-burning generators appear to have been ruled out.

But internationally agreed carbon taxes , permits and rising global temperatures may push the world along the road towards accepting the unacceptable.

The other strand of the community's policy, a carbon tax , now looks unlikely to be approved by ministers.

The chemical industry, however, is opposed to a carbon tax for several reasons.

Is it expected that that will be the embryo for a carbon tax to pay for more investment in renewable energies?

Collor has spoken favourably of the idea of an international carbon tax .

tetrachloride

A failure of a centrifugal pump, also in February, resulted in a small release of carbon tetrachloride .

Alan Townshend, professor of analytical chemistry at Hull, agrees that phasing out carbon tetrachloride is a minor worry.

And so, too, do carbon tetrachloride and methyl chloroform.

It was feared the burning Alloprene was producing phosgene gas, carbon tetrachloride and hydrochloric acid.

■ VERB

absorb

These plants absorb the carbon dioxide released by the corals and so help to keep the water oxygenated.

Rainforests absorb carbon dioxide and produce the oxygen essential for all life, including our own.

For plants to photosynthesise and produce sugars in their leaf cells, they need to absorb large amounts of carbon dioxide.

One way of absorbing the extra carbon dioxide would be to plant more trees.

Living tropical forests also absorb carbon dioxide.

A forest on this scale would absorb large amounts of carbon dioxide.

based

It would be based on the carbon content of fuels and would have the biggest effect on the coal industry.

cause

The Echo investigation highlighted a series of deaths caused by carbon monoxide poisoning from faulty gas fires.

There is no evidence to suggest that the chimney was capped deliberately to cause carbon monoxide poisoning.

Washington continues to challenge the scientific claim that global warming is in part caused by emissions of carbon dioxide.

contain

The end product contains mainly carbon monoxide and hydrogen from the gasification step plus a little methane from the carbonisation.

The very weakest meteors also contain large amounts of carbon , far more than we see in even the most carbon-rich meteorites.

The fog, apart from being a mutated organism, now contains carbon dioxide and various other impurities.

The resulting products usually contain carbon double bonds.

Carbon dioxide invariably contains 27.37% carbon and 72.73% oxygen, by mass.

Carbohydrates in pure form contain only carbon , hydrogen, and oxygen.

The device contains a carbon dioxide cylinder which released gas into a coiled chamber.

In general coals contain carbon , hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur with various other trace elements.

cut

The new standards cut emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, gaseous hydrocarbons and particulate matter.

It estimates that in that time it cut its carbon dioxide emissions by more than 20 percent.

Doubling rail traffic would cut carbon dioxide emissions by only about 3 percent.

Speeding up urban traffic could save 10 percent of fuel, and so cut back on carbon dioxide.

They are demanding that richer countries cut back their carbon emissions to compensate.

form

Combustion: Benzene burns to form carbon dioxide and water.

When they are burned, their carbon combines with oxygen from the atmosphere to form carbon dioxide gas.

In combination with oxygen it forms the gas carbon dioxide.

include

The products of coal gasification include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methane and nitrogen.

Reducing agents used for this purpose include carbon or other metals.

increase

Cigarettes increase the carbon monoxide level in the blood.

As irradiance increases the carbon dioxide supply becomes more important and eventually limiting.

At that point, however, the still increasing emissions of carbon dioxide will begin the upward spiral once more.

That is a neat package for increasing the output of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

Any tissue starved of oxygen increases its carbon dioxide production and the lungs compensate by deep and sighing respirations.

produce

So more and more coal, gas and oil are burned producing more carbon dioxide.

They produce bubbles of carbon dioxide gas, which push the cake or bread batter up.

And burning coal, of course, produces , carbon dioxide as well as sulphur dioxide.

And it probably always will, since no conceivable technology can prevent petroleum combustion from producing carbon dioxide.

The most immediate is that they take up oxygen from water to support their respiration and produce carbon dioxide.

Sodium bicarbonate plus an acid will produce bubbles of carbon dioxide gas.

The yeast feeds on the sugar and produces alcohol and carbon dioxide.

Instead the bubbles are produced by injecting carbon dioxide into the finished wine.

reduce

Their purpose is to encourage countries to ratify the Kyoto protocol on reducing carbon emissions.

Other companies have studied ways to offset or reduce emissions of carbon dioxide.

The new plan focused on reducing carbon dioxide emissions by cutting energy consumption.

When carbon monoxide is the reducing agent, carbon dioxide is produced.

This would reduce carbon emissions and would also provide alternative uses for farm surpluses.

It reduces the carbon in carbon dioxide.

The alternative is to reduce carbon consumption by 90 % over the next 10 years.

The higher thermal efficiency resulting from the topping cycle reduces the amount of carbon dioxide produced per unit of power generated.

release

In addition, the fierce solar heat released further carbon from its surface rocks.

This surface reaction of oxygen and carbon releases carbon monoxide which migrates outward and upon encountering oxygen burns to carbon dioxide.

Because the diesel engine uses so much less fuel it releases substantially less carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

That harmlessly releases 600 litres of carbon dioxide into the air every second.

Simply using energy and fuel efficiently could stop us releasing much of the carbon dioxide we currently emit.

It would feed into, and further exacerbate, global warming by releasing vast amounts of carbon .

remove

Potassium hydroxide is injected into the tube to remove carbon dioxide.

They also remove the carbon and make it available to plants as carbon dioxide.

use

Traditionally, this cooling requirement has been accomplished using slices of solid carbon dioxide, better known as dry ice.

The process uses small chips of carbon to adsorb the gold dissolved in solution.

The residue, a carbon-based char, can be used instead of activated carbon in, for instance, sewage works.

After the card has been used , ask for carbon copies and destroy them.

Complete the application for an official search using a carbon for the duplicate copy comprised in the one form.

Many outsoles now combine the two and use the carbon rubber in the heel or other high impact points.

Aquifers could be used as carbon stores, if they could be made gas-tight.

They use that magic carbon paper.

PHRASES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

oil-based/carbon-based/computer-based etc

EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS

But in practice, modern Earthly life is a protege of water, as much as it is of carbon .

In the other two mechanisms, buckminsterfullerene is formed by a combination of specific precursor carbon clusters.

The best way to get that carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is to warm the entire planet.

The more carbon , the more mess.

The plant material itself is converted to black carbon .

The platinum catalyses the reaction of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons with air to give carbon dioxide and water vapour.

This same basic cycle could also operate on the interconversion of carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide plus oxygen.

Longman DOCE5 Extras English vocabulary.      Дополнительный английский словарь Longman DOCE5.