Meaning of CELL in English

CELL

noun

COLLOCATIONS FROM OTHER ENTRIES

a blood cell

The red blood cells carry oxygen.

a jail cell

The suspect was found dead in his jail cell.

a prison cell (= a room where a prisoner lives )

Overcrowding means that many prisoners have to share a prison cell.

a terrorist cell (= a small secret group of terrorists )

Detectives believe that one individual, rather than a terrorist cell, is responsible for the bombing.

cancer cells

a new treatment which effectively kills cancer cells

condemned cell

dry cell

fuel cell

nerve cell

padded cell

photoelectric cell

red blood cell

solar cell

stem cell

T cell

white blood cell

COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS

■ ADJECTIVE

different

What presses the right button in different cells ?

It was isolated and studied earlier from a variety of different types of cells .

All contain the same genes, although different genes will be turned on in the different specialist cells .

For H&E sections, the different cell types as a percentage of the total cells was calculated.

There are millions of different B-cells in the body that are ready to produce anti-bodies.

The embryo is thus a chimaera, a mosaic of two different kinds of cells .

There are many billions of cells in an adult human body but also there are many different kinds of cells.

Thus, a zygote is clearly capable of giving rise to all the different kinds of cells in the body.

endothelial

ET-1-like immunoreactivity and mRNA were also present in pulmonary vascular endothelial cells , particularly in specimens from patients with pulmonary hypertension.

Blood group factor H has been reported to blind preferentially to endothelial cells as well as intestinal mucins and other glycoproteins.

We propose a novel variation, namely that proteoglycans on an endothelial cell can bind and present cytokines to passing leukocytes.

Xanthine oxidase has been found in the endothelium of capillaries by immunohistochemistry, and superoxide is generated in endothelial cell cultures.

The endothelial cells lining blood vessels become damaged during treatment and the affected vessels leak fluid into the tissues.

Lipoproteins may indirectly affect platelet function by altering vascular endothelial cell function.

epithelial

Alternatively, indirect effects involving the regulation of epithelial cell function by mesenchyme are also possible.

From the epithelial cells the chylomicrons are released into the lymphatic system, which transports the chylomicrons to the blood.

The possibility that intestinal epithelial cells may produce platelet activating factor has been suggested by Kald etal.

These compounds are absorbed into the epithelial cells surrounding the central lumen containing the colloid.

Most studies entailing isolation of intestinal epithelial cells invitro and subsequent grafting invivo have used intact undifferentiated fetal endoderm.

The dye was reduced by epithelial cells , vascular endothelium, and infiltrating mononuclear cells of the mucosa.

In contrast, only epithelial cells from ulcerative colitis showed an appreciable increase after calcium ionophore induction.

human

Monolayers of human hepatoma cell line Hep3B were maintained in Dulbecco modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum.

The virus proved highly selective in killing several lines of human cancer cells in laboratory cell cultures.

This might be attributed to cyclotron resonance induced in human body cells by weak electromagnetic fields.

In other mice in which colonies of normal human cells were grafted, the virus had little or no effect.

There are more human brain cells on this space station than there are stars in this galaxy.

Cyclotron resonance in human body cells Sabberton, Southampton, p8 - 15, 1990. 2.

The human cancer cell could not be more different.

Those with high energies, such as iron, would penetrate the craft and bore through human cells .

living

Every living cell and every atom has a nucleus.

The process of energy production in living cells is an example.

Some meteorites betray traces of proteinoid globules, the precursors of living cells .

Biophysics is certainly able to cast significant light on processes occurring within living cells .

Every living cell , even a single bacterial cell, can be thought of as a gigantic chemical factory.

Indeed, both gamma rays and X-rays can be extremely damaging to living cells .

The main storage medium inside willow seeds, ants and all other living cells is not electronic but chemical.

The tubules exude fluid when cut and contain living cells , as well as nerves.

mononuclear

Lamina propria mononuclear cells were isolated by a modification of the original technique of Bull and Bookman.

Furthermore, cultured mononuclear cells isolated from inflammatory bowel disease mucosa spontaneously secrete large amounts of IgG.

Results Deposits of formazan were found in the colonic epithelium, vascular endothelium, and infiltrating mononuclear cells .

Epithelial and lamina propria mononuclear cells were isolated from surgical specimens from control, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis patients.

Also, patients not treated with NSAIDs were more likely to have heavy neutrophilic and mononuclear cell infiltration.

The dye was reduced by epithelial cells , vascular endothelium, and infiltrating mononuclear cells of the mucosa.

Its reduction by vascular endothelium and infiltrating mononuclear cells was greater in inflamed mucosa.

Reports of invitro production of cytokines by peripheral or mucosal mononuclear cells in inflammatory bowel disease, however, conflict.

normal

It is a medical problem to attack the virus without attacking the normal cells .

Abnormal cells appear white, normal cells, dark.

But they also kill other normal cells .

In other mice in which colonies of normal human cells were grafted, the virus had little or no effect.

Oncogenes control normal growth cells and their division.

The protein eats normal cells , leading to the drastic weight loss which weakens patients and prevents them fighting the disease.

Systemic treatment of cancer is bedevilled by the similarity of tumour cells to normal cells, at least under most physiological conditions.

The idea is to cause progressive damage to the cancer cells , while allowing the normal cells to recuperate.

other

Research in other cell lines has suggested that the mechanical properties of the substratum are important in the maintenance of cellular differentiation.

Margulis's theory is that mitochondria and chloroplasts, and a few other structures inside cells , are each descended from bacteria.

The main storage medium inside willow seeds, ants and all other living cells is not electronic but chemical.

Yet other neural crest cells migrate into the head region and form tissues of the head and face such as cartilage and bone.

The pathways taken by the cells may be determined by the nature of the extracellular matrix and contacts with other cells enroute.

The monoclonal antibodies work by combating the T-Lymphocytes and other threatening cells .

Its dendrites pick up information from other neurons, and the axon and its terminals pass this on to other cells .

This, in turn, influences yet other cells .

parietal

The exaggerated acid response to gastrin can be explained by the increased parietal cell mass present in duodenal ulcer patients.

Ethanol has a systemic as well as topical action on the gastric parietal cell .

Interestingly, this is the period in which parietal cells disappear from the same anatomical site in most subjects.

This is supported by our observation that the G cell and parietal cell densities were negatively correlated.

The mediator for the action of ethanol on the parietal cell is not known.

Further studies are clearly needed to fully elucidate the effect of ethanol on the gastric parietal cell .

red

Associations have been shown between low packed cell volume or red cell volume, or both, and the respiratory distress syndrome.

Glycosylated hemoglobin refers to the specific red cell hemoglobin A types to which a glucose molecule becomes irreversibly attached.

For example, some types of animal cells such as red blood cells are filled with salt solution.

The red blood cell is finally a small bag containing haemoglobin molecules for transporting oxygen.

We have shown that red cell volume predicts outcome in preterm infants.

Urine analysis, a red blood cell count, and blood pressure were also routinely recorded.

For those not requiring red cell transfusion there was no difference in packed cell volume between the groups at 1 month.

One removes the red blood cells , leaving the plasma; the second removes the fatty cholesterol.

single

However, some yeasts can grow in both ways - either as hyphae or as single cells .

It was as if every single cell in my body sprouted wings and started flying about inside wildly.

Fully discharging a single NiCad cell does it no harm, as you state in the article.

Even here there is debate about whether the activity of any single cell could be used to identify a particular face.

By the 1950s and 1960s, delicate equipment for reaching and investigating single nerve cells could be built with new materials.

Recording the electrical activity of single brain cells in mammals only became a viable proposition in the 1950s.

Every living cell , even a single bacterial cell, can be thought of as a gigantic chemical factory.

Analysis was confined to those crypts whose entire lengths could be completely visualised and which contained a single layer of cells only.

small

There they construct a small royal cell .

Nas Imran sat on the edge of an iron bunk in his small cell in a Washington state prison.

As usual, capsaicin had the effect of destroying small sensory nerve cells .

It is organised into small cells and therefore hard to infiltrate, particularly as total secrecy is demanded of its members.

A row of darker rectangles indicated smaller cells along one side.

Primary small cell gastric lymphomas are less frequent and are usually localised, solitary lesions that can be completely excised.

By striking contrast the non-adherent subpopulation was heterogeneous, with many small , darkly-stained cells having the appearance of lymphocytes.

The infiltrate consisted of small lymphoid cells mixed with medium and occasionally large cells.

solar

Note that the solar cell has an efficiency of only about 10%.

At 20 percent efficiency, solar photovoltaic cells in geosynchronous orbit can deliver 270 watts of electric power per square meter continuously.

Research on solar-cell design has recently shown us how to make extremely lightweight solar cells .

He is planning another trip into the countryside to demonstrate his solar cells as well as a new solar cooker.

Alternatively, arrays of solar cells may be made on the Moon out of lunar materials and only the power exported.

These modular construction kits now include solar cells , rechargeable batteries etc.

But solar cells are constantly improving, experts say.

white

The most vulnerable cells were those which the body renews most frequently; especially the white blood cells, including the lymphocytes.

So it keeps only a few copies of each white cell .

In two-thirds of such patients, white blood cells known as T-Lymphocytes that are produced by the marrow attack their fresh surroundings.

His urine contains numerous white cells and bacteria.

It is used to stimulate the white blood cells .

In the process of clotting, potassium is released from platelets and may also be released from white cells .

Later, the patient was in severe, but expected, danger from a depletion of his own healthy white blood cells .

Plasma is the protein-rich water that remains when red and white blood cells are removed from blood.

■ NOUN

blood

For example, some types of animal cells such as red blood cells are filled with salt solution.

Old Chao was blushing so furiously that he seemed to be swelling, his very blood cells agitating to escape.

The red blood cell is finally a small bag containing haemoglobin molecules for transporting oxygen.

His body was erroneously producing a flood of white blood cells in a frantic search for a disease that did not exist.

Research has suggested that for blood cells , this lipid asymmetry may help to maintain the delicate balance between haemostasis and thrombosis.

Plasma is the protein-rich water that remains when red and white blood cells are removed from blood.

Gravity stifled her, hammered her red blood cells .

Since 1998, white blood cells have been removed from donated blood.

brain

For instance, while brain cells do die and are not replaced, their loss is not an explanation for senility.

Like cocaine and amphetamine, alcohol directly stimulates certain brain cells .

But the immature brain cells were the most effective treatment in the rats, says Sandberg.

Now he could no more excise it from his brain cells than he could sever his past from his future.

This in turn changes the way in which certain developing brain cells connect up with one another.

All of a sudden I know two things: why they were on the same brain cell , and how psychiatry works.

Recording the electrical activity of single brain cells in mammals only became a viable proposition in the 1950s.

Then, the mice were killed and scientists counted their brain cells , looking for differences between the former littermates.

cancer

Up to 50 drugs are being tested on the cancer cells from the blood of leukaemia patients in Bath.

Was that due to decreased amounts of cholesterol in the cancer cells ?

Without blood, cancer cells starve.

Something about the ideology of the cancer cell , wasn't it?

As time went on this picture changed and I gave the cancer cells more cunning characteristics.

Neoprobe, a biotechnology company, has developed a technology that makes it easier for surgeons to target only cancer cells .

This will kill of the cancer cells but it will also kill off anything else in the vicinity.

And there was absolutely no reason why a single cancer cell should ever be let loose in any part of our body.

count

Values of packed cell count , haemoglobin, urea, glucose, creatinine, and electrolytes were obtained at admission.

The baby had a 104-degree temperature and a high white-blood-cell count .

Urine analysis, a red blood cell count , and blood pressure were also routinely recorded.

Occasionally, a substantially increased platelet or white cell count may lead to apparent increases in plasma potassium concentration.

Of the 14 women studied, nine had high pitted red cell counts and the majority of the group had ascites.

In a number of clinical disorders the cell count is subject to periodic or highly irregular variation.

Apart from a moderate increase in the white cell count in both patients, the results of routine investigations were normal.

These measurements correlate with neuronal cell count and show a relative reduction of neurons in the epileptogenic hippocampus.

cycle

Many differentiated cells retain the ability to return to the cell cycle when confronted with the appropriate mitogenic stimulus.

Their third suggestion is that the cell cycle is important and may need to be controlled.

These observations defined the structure of the cell cycle experiments, as carried out in January and February of 1995.

Something else was important, too; and that something else was the cell cycle .

In those days Lawrence and I had very little idea indeed of what the cell cycle actually is.

The shift of emphasis, from degree of differentiation to cell cycle , is crucial and huge.

Besides, even within cell biology, ideas on the cell cycle were still in the formative stages.

So we have vindicated the ` cell cycle hypothesis'.

division

It is these cells which will later give rise, by further cell division , to eggs or sperm.

Nobody has to remind me that frequent cell division is not by itself malignancy.

The spores do germinate, go through a few perfunctory cell divisions , then give up the ghost.

These genes are duplicated along with the chromosomes at each cell division and can be passed down from parents to their offspring.

With further cell divisions there would be a further unequal distribution of such determinants.

They are the first to divide in cell division and form the poles at each end of the cell.

They therefore play an important part in cell division .

Even if these cells are removed from the body and kept in tissue culture, they retain their characteristics through many cell divisions .

fuel

Mounted round this fairing were the eight radiators used to vent the excess heat produced by the fuel cells into space.

S.-manufactured fuel cells for electric power use.

Public transport of the future may use fuel cells to achieve zero emissions.

The group, like other environmental activists, would prefer the use of hydrogen alone to generate power for fuel cells .

These are aimed at achieving early commercialisation of fuel cells and significantly increasing demand for platinum.

The city of Chicago has contracted to purchase three city transit buses that will be powered by fuel cells .

Unlike in a battery, the chemicals in a fuel cell are continuously replaced as they are used up.

There are reports that Toyota will unveil a fuel cell car later this year.

line

Some cell lines , however, achieve what appears to be immortality.

Monolayers of human hepatoma cell line Hep3B were maintained in Dulbecco modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum.

Three independent transfected cell lines were isolated and studied.

The tumours were then removed to establish another cell line for future studies.

Incubation time and concentration of cytokines were chosen according to optimal responses known for the ICAM-1 upregulation on other tumour cell lines .

Northern blot analysis of Oct-11 and Oct-2 expression in various mouse tissues and cell lines .

Nuclei were isolated from cell lines or spleen from transgenic animals or inbred mouse strains.

lines

Research in other cell lines has suggested that the mechanical properties of the substratum are important in the maintenance of cellular differentiation.

There are also patents on varieties of seeds and plants, as well as unusual genes and cell lines from indigenous peoples.

Other cell lines , however, in this assay were all negative.

Incubation time and concentration of cytokines were chosen according to optimal responses known for the ICAM-1 upregulation on other tumour cell lines .

Tyrosine phosphate is found concentrated at points of cell-matrix and cell-cell contact in other cell lines studied.

Now the Bush administration says that a government canvass of laboratories has turned up more than 60 stem cell lines .

The potential autocrine grown effects of gastrin in colorectal cancer have previously been studied using cell lines .

In other words, cell lines derived from tumours of the same tissue may contain two different transforming genes.

membrane

Under resting conditions the cell membrane will not allow ions to diffuse passively across it, so the potential difference remains.

It sends a second message, in addition to the voltage change it produces across the cell membrane .

The contractile vacuole expands and eventually discharges the water it contains to the exterior through the cell membrane .

Cantor picked up his paper napkin and drew a rough sketch of a cell membrane .

Before a virus can infect an animal cell it must first bind to specific receptor molecules embedded in the cell membrane .

Only particles that can not cross cell membranes obligate net water flow across such membranes.

The cancer problem and cell membrane proteins were only the latest triumph.

When an action potential arrives, the bags rapidly fuse with the cell membrane , dumping their Figure 3.

muscle

In addition to its potent vasoconstrictive actions, ET-1 is also a mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells .

Then the cells were exposed to cytomegalovirus, to which the muscle cells are particularly susceptible.

Heart tissue has a complex architecture that includes blood vessels and connective tissue, as well as muscle cells .

The production of a visceral-specific anti-peptide antibody should permit a further investigation of its expression in smooth muscle cells .

There is no difficulty in recognizing a red blood cell , a muscle cell, or a nerve cell.

Electrical control activity is caused by the entrainment of the fluctuations of the transmembrane potentials of individual smooth muscle cells .

Several theories of the factors causing smooth muscle cell proliferation have been made.

When the horse is resting, this heat production is minimal because the muscle cells are fairly inactive.

nerve

This opened the issue of how nerve cells might communicate with each other and eventually led to our now-sophisticated understanding of neurotransmitters.

The effects of the virus on nerve cells , which control muscle movements, vary significantly.

The Vienna doctors say that D-proline is neurotoxic, which means that it can kill brain and other nerve cells .

Somehow the real Neil, an authentic voice, emerges from all those nerve cells .

He thinks the stem cells and immature nerve cells are attracted to these signals.

The final question was whether the virus entered the bloodstream before it attacked nerve cells .

In the same way, nerve cells in the spinal cord show activity whenever a particular movement is made by the arm.

They are very sophisticated nerve cells that respond to three kinds of stimuli: physical pressure, temperature, and specific chemicals.

phone

And put down that cell phone , before it kills you!

You started with the cell phone the minute you sat down.

Services, have already set up networks in most major metropolitan areas to offer Internet access via the cell phone technology.

They raised help on a cell phone but were unable to offer details about their location.

Liberal Washington Post reporter Jane Day uses her cell phone to call in the story.

Everyone within 100 yards dropped their cell phones and rushed to the scrum.

The only uncomfortable moment was when a cell phone began ringing behind them and they started smiling at each other.

If not, tell those guys with the cell phones to slow down.

prison

Kaczynski was scheduled to begin seven days of mental tests Saturday in his Dublin prison cell .

More than a dozen activists have locked themselves inside a mock prison cell they put up outside the federal Interior Ministry here.

It wasn't like a prison cell , it-was like a maid's room, Eve told herself firmly.

They are part of a nationwide operation which has cost millions of pounds after the disturbances which destroyed hundreds of prison cells .

Nadia's winning work in her age-group showed a prison cell with doors thrown open, depicting freedom.

It had only one room, and one window, which was heavily barred, like a prison cell .

The cell where he was held was, like a prison cell in a spaghetti western, built of mud.

They might have sat in the same prison cell as he was sitting in now.

proliferation

It is thought to reflect defective cell proliferation control and delayed onset of normal differentiation.

A similar paradox pertains in the relationship between dietary fibre, colonic cell proliferation , and experimental carcinogenesis.

Oat bran has been shown to increase tumourigenesis yet it does not effect colonic cell proliferation .

This preparation has been shown not to affect epithelial cell proliferation .

Several theories of the factors causing smooth muscle cell proliferation have been made.

Limited studies have been published on human gastric mucosal cell proliferation and a detailed overview of such work has been published.

Gastrointestinal epithelial cell proliferation is influenced by many hormonal, paracrine, and intraluminal agents.

Short term supplementation with vitamin C reduces the cell proliferation to normal values possibly by reducing the S-phase duration.

sickle

A clear example of a mutation altering development is the inherited genetic defect, sickle cell anaemia.

Diagnosis of the clinically severe forms of sickle cell disease is not difficult, providing awareness of the disease is high.

In Britain one in ten black people carry the sickle cell gene.

Diagnostic features of different types of sickle cell disease.

Around 300 children with sickle cell disease are registered at King's College Hospital.

The most effective way of organising specialist care is through sickle cell centres, which can offer both clinical and psychological support.

Chronic and acute problems associated with sickle cell anaemia.

The role of the staff at sickle cell centres is highly varied, but is summarised in Table 4.

stem

However, stem cells are generally taken from embryos created and routinely discarded all the time in fertility clinics.

The stem cells at the heart of the matter are to be found in human embryos a few days old.

Further studies are directed towards the understanding of the role which the stem cell control factor DIA/LIF plays in the normal embryo.

Some critics echo the radical anti-abortion lobby in comparing stem cell research to the Holocaust.

Hence, small intestinal epithelial stem cells may be isolated in mixed cell populations and successfully maintained ex vivo.

Somewhere in the middle of the conflicting forces Bush must decide whether stem cell research should get federal funding.

In principle, because stem cells are self-renewing, they are, unlike the cells they generate, immortal.

However, removing the stem cells kills the embryo, and therefore has serious ethical implications.

type

Such isoforms and their relative abundance could mediate specific cell type or matrix interactions.

They contain the same cell types - muscle, tendon, skin, bone, and so on - yet they are different.

Again, the explanation lies in how these cell types are spatially ordered.

Consider the different cell types , such as muscle, skin, gut, and nerve.

Yet it has the potential to give rise to all of those cell types , and many more.

These cell types can derive from several cells well separated in the lineage.

Some of these products have been shown to induce ET-1 synthesis and release in various cell types .

The distinctions between the three cell types are quite subtle and may only be obvious after quite extensive testing.

wall

Simultaneous changes in the cell walls , hormonally induced, produce negative pressure potentials during extra-cellular freezing, which control the dehydration.

When they were forbidden to use the bathroom without uniforms, they smeared excrement on their cell walls .

Up to about 25 percent moisture content the whole of the water in wood is held in association with the hydroxyls in the cell walls .

Plant roots in the peats and estuarine sediments concentrate uranium in cell walls , especially in regions associated with transpiration processes.

Each individual cell grows as a vertical column by inserting new cell wall material uniformly along its length.

This is due to the fact that the bacteria normally used to penetrate the cell walls does not affect them.

Each of the Edinburgh patients colonised by the epidemic strain showed a rising IgG antibody response to P cepacia-specific cell wall antigen.

Uranium, selenium and calcium are concentrated in cell walls whereas bismuth and sulphur are concentrated within the cells.

■ VERB

produce

Mounted round this fairing were the eight radiators used to vent the excess heat produced by the fuel cells into space.

It sends a second message, in addition to the voltage change it produces across the cell membrane.

The new vaccine aims to trigger a different kind of immuno-response, producing not antibodies but cells-killer T-cells.

I read about the thymus gland, which produces cells .

Each of the two divisions of meiosis produces two daughter cells , each of which contains the same amount of nuclear material.

Will it work, producing new cells ?

Scientists have spotted a unique protein produced by all cancerous cells .

Gastrin is the designation given to a family of protein hormones produced by the mucosal cells of the gastric antrum.

show

Immunohistochemical studies have shown that the IgG cell fraction is increased up to 30 times, depending on the severity of the lesion.

We have shown that red cell volume predicts outcome in preterm infants.

These results showed that the cell culture maintained satisfactory growth until confluency had been reached.

The inflow to pension funds is combined with the inflow of funds to life assurance companies and is shown in cell 6/3.

Nadia's winning work in her age-group showed a prison cell with doors thrown open, depicting freedom.

Blood was detected in the urine on biochemical screening, but microscopy showed very few red cells .

In six patients the specimens still showed nodular argyrophil cell hyperplasia, and one patient had developed a carcinoid tumour.

Haemoglobin electrophoresis showed sickle cell trait.

EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

alkaline battery cells

cancer cells

Conditions were poor, and there were several prisoners to one cell .

red blood cells

The prison cells have doors of heavy steel.

Warren planned to find a communist cell and become a member.

EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS

Barrett's oesophagus represents a metaplastic transformation of the normal squamous cell epithelium of the lower tubular oesophagus into columnar epithelium.

He was tortured severely, stripped and manacled to a concrete cell floor.

Methods for dissociating cells are therefore more drastic and not necessarily compatible with long-term viability.

Results Deposits of formazan were found in the colonic epithelium, vascular endothelium, and infiltrating mononuclear cells.

These antibodies are produced by the B cells in our lymph glands.

Thyroglobulin secreted by the epithelial cells, makes up 90 percent of the colloid.

When a surgeon destroys overactive cells in the globus pallidum, he restores balance to the system, said Grossman.

You find that cells in adjacent parts of the visual cortex are activated by stimulation in adjacent parts of the visual field.

Longman DOCE5 Extras English vocabulary.      Дополнительный английский словарь Longman DOCE5.