Meaning of DATA in English

DATA

noun

COLLOCATIONS FROM OTHER ENTRIES

a data file

The bigger the data file, the more time is needed to search it.

biometric data

biometric data

collate information/results/data/figures

A computer system is used to collate information from across Britain.

comparable figures/data/results

comparable figures for the same period of time last year

computer data

CD ROMs store computer data.

data analysis

the use of databases for data analysis

data bank

data mining

data processing

data protection

security issues such as data protection

data transmission

worldwide data transmission

electronic data interchange

evidence/results/data/studies etc suggest(s) that

The evidence suggests that single fathers are more likely to work than single mothers.

experimental evidence/results/data

A hypothesis is tested by finding experimental evidence for it.

inaccurate information/data etc

He was fined $300,000 for making inaccurate statements to Congress.

personal data organizer

quantitative analysis/methods/data etc

We need to do a proper quantitative analysis of this problem.

raw data

software to convert raw data into usable information

seasonally adjusted figures/rates/data etc (= ones that are changed according to what usually happens at a particular time of year )

up-to-date information/data/figures/news etc

They have access to up-to-date information through a computer database.

COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS

■ ADJECTIVE

available

These points apart, each side twisted the available data to suit its own opinion.

In 1994, the latest available national data , an average state employee in Arizona was paid $ 19, 587.

Despite the limitations of the available data , the picture which emerges from this review is complex and interesting.

The dispute involves speculative claims far beyond the available data .

By contrast with our study, the available data for oral cisapride do not suggest that cisapride affects characteristics of oesophageal contraction.

In looking at available official data we must bear these general limitations in mind.

Inpart, the resolution of the paradox is almost certainly in terms of the accuracy of the available data .

Hunting Reserves probably occur but no data is available .

electronic

Some better-known examples are electronic mail, enhanced fax, and electronic data interchange.

But, in general, they include systems for design, production control, distribution, electronic data interchange and so on.

Other products include magazines, electronic data bases, and cartographic material.

Since the 1950s there have been three major phases of electronic data creation.

E-comms 6 1.5 25.0 Electronic solutions including data management and web design.

As a result of the microcomputer revolution, electronic data processing has become a familiar feature of research in most humanities disciplines.

Donations will be recorded on an electronic data base.

experimental

Is the standard unified model the only possible explanation of the experimental data it so well describes?

This feature is present in the standard unified model, so it is not surprising that the experimental data are satisfied.

As agreement between calculated and experimental I-V spectra is good, this method is clearly viable for the analysis of experimental data .

Each experimental data point in Figures 1 and 2 is the average of three experiments in three identical model biles.

These plants, unlike the earlier tonics, have the backing of a large amount of experimental and clinical data .

Data sets precluded from analysis are well documented, but the great bulk of typical experimental data will be handled.

In nylon he found the Voigt average to be closest to experimental data .

historical

The collection of historical data on natural hazards is important since it is clear that their spatial pattern varies through time.

Preparing both training and test input files will not depend on historical data sets, which are usually controlled by some one else.

Some well-informed practitioners are highly sceptical of the reliability of corporate betas based on historical data .

This is the way we receive the historical data sheets.

In addition to the specific limitations, there is the general caution which should be exercised in using historical data to document social change.

For historical earnings data , type the ticker, followed by Equity&038;.

Much of the historical data relate to the County Borough area.

Neural nets can learn rule structures and patterns on their own from historical data or through experience.

large

If you wish to pass large amounts of data between CHAINed programs, you should use a data file.

This is not recommended because it is unreliable for large strings of data .

There is particular expertise in computing applications, especially those using large data sets.

Applications such as video conferencing requiring the exchange of large amounts of data at regular intervals can be deployed.

The location-factor approach focused on large numerical data sets and on finding statistically significant relationships between variables.

There are, in fact, large data gaps.

This implies the need to store potentially very large , unstructured data objects as just another field in a database record.

Software Systems: Software for telephone companies; computer data management software for scientific community and others using large amounts of data.

personal

Assuming that eventually ail data users handling personal data on computers are registered, what has been achieved?

Financial analysis and management have been revolutionized by technological improvements in personal computers and data processing equipment.

Concern about the confidentiality of large amounts of personal data has necessitated legal action.

Since I used a tax program last year, I was able to import personal data and avoid typing it at all.

However, the directive is likely to remove any real distinction between personal data held on paper and on electronic systems.

The directive requires, interalia, that compilers of personal data require the consent of the data subject for inclusion.

This notice orders a data user to cease processing personal data immediately.

The network will provide video-on-demand, interactive games, full-motion video, distance learning, personal communications and data network services.

quantitative

In comparison with the elaborate quantitative data sets on voting we have little empirical information on this group phenomenon.

More importantly, we retain the quantitative data that allows for post-inspection review or audit.

The purpose of these techniques is to make quantitative data available to managers in order to aid decision-making, planning and control.

Our life. history interviews will help us fill in the meaning of our quantitative data .

These are statements of probable sales, costs and other relevant financial and quantitative data . ii.

However, if the study involves quantitative analysis of data , then some discussion is in order.

raw

Purely descriptive studies serve as the raw data for those comparative studies that aspire to higher levels of explanation.

Competing against time and against one an-other, they tweaked and massaged the raw seismic data with complex computer models.

That is what will happen when we get what the hon. Gentleman describes as the raw data .

Team one is responsible for the collection and analysis of raw data received from the volunteer force.

As he pores over all this raw data the field-worker discovers certain interesting patterns and principles in terms of which his information makes sense.

Still, the raw scope of data can be addictive.

It is no good saying that they will comprise raw data .

Data, raw data from which we have learned, seemingly, nothing.

statistical

What is particularly interesting from the historical viewpoint is the manner in which refinement of the statistical data has altered the record.

The process engineering people collected statistical data on 17 parameters involved in the fabrication of thin film circuits.

The statistical data is not sufficiently large to enable satisfactory significance tests to be performed.

The inputs corresponded to actual statistical data for thin-film processing thicknesses taken at five different time intervals during a day.

Some statistical data is always included and, again, care is needed to avoid any ambiguity.

But statistical data , financial reports, and tables are often printed across wider paper.

This section has just presented some statistical data on such differences.

They will also work in Soviet archives, where a great deal of new statistical data has become available.

■ NOUN

analysis

Knowledge of the application area gained from data analysis will provide this information.

Many new data analysis designs have been developed since that time.

This means that the data analysis stage is as crucial as the implementation stage of the computer applications.

There are interviewers, data analysis experts, and research assistants to be employed by the project.

All the authors participated in data analysis and interpretation.

Describes the process of data analysis .

One of the most important techniques of data analysis described in the text is entity modelling.

Systems analysis in general - and data analysis is a branch of systems analysis - is an art, not an exact science.

bank

They formed the starting-point for contemporary sociobiological theory and the main data bank of facts.

Most of the 20,000 asteroids in our data banks remain on well-behaved paths, for ever circuiting the sun in the main belt.

Once there it may appear on editor's data bank visual display unit as a single-line headline.

By using test-kits and keeping a record of the readings obtained you also build-up and invaluable data bank for future reference.

The comm-link details for reaching us are available in a number of professional directory data banks .

AR-WACC has decided to establish a computerised communication data bank for the Region.

His 10-point information policy stresses free access, establishment of information resource centres and public access to data banks .

And although the Act is all about computerised data banks , the word computer is not mentioned in the principles.

base

Now we hope to build a data base to analyse why one last is more successful than another.

While based upon an extensive data base and significant historical research, this Rand report has been criticized as being too pessimistic.

It takes San Francisco marriage certificates for 1980 as its main data base .

Others manage computer operations, software development, or data bases .

For example, the validity of a string of phonemes depends on what is in the lexical data base .

Abstract searching and updating of the data bases are done centrally and then disseminated to the centers.

Without this massive data base , all you read in from the bar code is a meaningless number.

Companies that use refund coupons are now developing a huge data base of information on consumer preferences, Wright says.

collection

It is a large-scale data collection and analysis exercise begun back in the early 1960s by the General Electric Company.

Copies of this schedule should be constructed in such a fashion that easy access be afforded the data collection process.

But comprehensive data collection ran ahead of a capacity for meaningful analysis, and prescriptive content was disappointing.

The data collection schedule will be attached following the footnote reference list.

Cumbria has been included in the Leukaemia Research Fund data collection study since it began in 1984.

This will be followed by a period of continued observation and data collection of the target behavior or set of behaviors.

Processing is then designed to minimize wastage and maximize data collection .

It is possible that a data collection schedule contains but one instrument.

file

If you wish to pass large amounts of data between CHAINed programs, you should use a data file .

For example: To move a data file from a folder to the desktop, you click, drag and drop.

But for the most sensitive material, Mr Hook suggests encrypting data files and scrambling information.

On what basis could counsel claim such a data file was irrelevant or privileged?

Where operation is to be directly from a different data file directory then TableCurve has to be in the dos path.

It will also show you which data files are associated with which applications.

The first deals with character data files .

The programs and data files have distinctive icons, providing a user-friendly graphical interface when run under OpenWindows.

processing

But, it has given no indication of whether it intends to acquire or dispose of any data processing activities.

This service is largely used for the development and operation of highly flexible management information systems rather than standard data processing work.

The algorithms required for most data processing are relatively simple.

Accountants, personnel administrators, economists, data processing experts and statisticians are all experts in a specialised field of work.

In conventional data processing , on the other hand, files are seen as a department or single application resource.

Ironically, the advent of de-centralised processing has made the work of the corporate data processing department harder.

Many other groups of specialists have also withered away in the face of data processing .

During that time, surveys covering over a hundred data processing installations were carried out.

set

A key-sequenced file or data set is created, with its associated indexes, as a cluster.

Preparing both training and test input files will not depend on historical data sets , which are usually controlled by some one else.

The terminal data for the data sets will be 1920.

Currently the data sets on suspect baggage are saved and used for future improvements on the system.

The location-factor approach focused on large numerical data sets and on finding statistically significant relationships between variables.

In the final analysis, conflicting molecular data sets can be judged by considering the biology of the considered organisms.

The system is quoted as correctly recognising 94% of characters of a data set of 112 people's writing.

That provided a large data set based on face-to-face interviews, self-completion questionnaires and physical surveys.

storage

First, the use structure of information became even more detached from the data storage structure of that information.

Data General reported strong sales of its CLARiiON data storage systems.

If it proves as successful as its developer, Ramtron, claims, it could replace all other types of data storage .

Sales of large-scale data storage devices also increased strongly, while earnings from computer maintenance services hardly changed.

The answer can also be obtained by access to the index without recourse to the data storage area.

This means adding just a little expanded memory produces a large percentage increase in the amount of memory available for data storage .

Secondly, they want scalable systems for immediate high capacity of data storage with low entry cost.

In traditional Fortran versions, the language's hierarchical data storage order isn't flexible and can not provide this information.

structure

The knowledge sources communicated through a blackboard data structure .

Many real-world data structures fit into the hierarchical pattern, however, and they are also readily understood.

Borland has succeeded in making Quattro Pro for Windows easy to use when creating multiple worksheets and 3D data structures .

Nowadays, however, most commercial systems will allow these different data structures to be mixed.

As the flow of information was fixed, data structures could be tailored to the specific knowledge bases using them.

This is a data structure with a condition an action and maybe a name other details.

This chapter discusses these forms of the logical schema and also shows how the data structures might be described to the database.

The analysis documentation will include the system inputs, outputs and data structures as well as the processing logic.

transfer

But this means that data transfer between processor registers is slowed down to the speed of store access.

Accurate, efficient data transfer with rapid notification of key partners and constituents is critical to effectively addressing emerging infectious disease threats.

That accounts for the particularly speedy data transfer and seek times you can see in the benchmarks box.

Simple arithmetic quickly tells us that this is equivalent to an average data transfer of 150,000 bytes per second.

The first of these is the data transfer time.

This file may be listed, during execution, to monitor data transfer progress.

Software drivers to optimise the SCSI-II interface support up to 20Mbyte-per-second data transfer rates.

The record search process is not usually lengthened at all, so only the increased data transfer time needs to be considered.

transmission

What data transmission speeds are proposed?

Cable systems can be integrated with wireless transmission networks to provide voice transmissions to phones and data transmissions to personal communicators.

Our present system is analogue and the requirement for computer system links and data transmission may justify changing to a digital system.

Private local-area networks on the Internet operate at data transmission speeds of 10 to 100 megabits per second.

Broadcast data via satellites also have a wide band width enabling good data transmission .

Generally, these networks do not have high-speed data transmission capabilities.

My hon. Friend wanted to know about data transmission services.

Murdoch said he hopes to expand beyond what those two companies offer and use satellites for data transmissions via computers.

■ VERB

analyse

Many of the published regression models are quite successful in analysing past data .

Radiation readings are taken every hour at each station and are transmitted to a central computer which analyses the data .

Students will therefore need courses that will equip them for observing, collecting and analysing linguistic data .

Using graphs to analyse your data is easier than examining the data cell-by-cell.

This incidence was high partly because we analysed the data shortly after the occurrence of these events.

All data sets obtained were initially analysed to determine whether data were normally or abnormally distributed.

based

A statistical analysis based on this data suggests that well over half the stars are being orbited by rocky terrestrial material.

While based upon an extensive data base and significant historical research, this Rand report has been criticized as being too pessimistic.

It will be based on data collected from monitoring stations throughout the province.

Apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives and state legislatures is based on census data .

It is based on a cross-referential data model to support automation.

By its very nature, political risk assessment must be subjective, i.e. not based on numerical data .

It was based on official state data .

collect

It contains sixteen basic rules, which include some for overall control and some which collect data .

The methods of collecting data are different.

The process engineering people collected statistical data on 17 parameters involved in the fabrication of thin film circuits.

The research will collect and organise data on these, with a view to evaluating the economic models.

Once you have defined your operational indicators, the next activity is to collect data .

More neurons are needed to control their larger muscle mass and to collect data from their extra sensors.

The neural network collects its data incrementally, every five minutes.

gather

But quantitative and qualitative research methods will be used to gather data .

The point of the interview is to make full and systematic use of this to gather data for research purposes.

You must make these decisions before you gather data , or you will not get all the information necessary for your analysis.

So we have to gather data on numbers and again rely on volunteers as our workforce and a source of financial help.

The question of where to look for power is the first priority in gathering data .

They gather little or no data of their own, but instead tend toward adhominem charges against the scholarly consensus.

The idea is to gather data from a subset that reflects the most interesting characteristics of the larger population.

include

They include specific industry data with a worldwide coverage.

Be sure to include only relevant data .

This includes agricultural data , socio-economic data and data on the natural environment.

Other products include magazines, electronic data bases, and cartographic material.

It includes data from 12 wells with different logging conditions and depths ranging from 2200 to 6700 meters.

Preventive measures include data encryption using various cryptographic methods.

Analysis of the choice opportunity to include data collection and evaluation of alternatives. 3.

The company said the multicasting also will include high-speed transmission of data to business and home computers.

obtain

It was recognised that several sources might have to be approached in order to obtain comprehensive data on this subject. 4.

The purpose of the audit is to identify a problem and to obtain objective data for analysis.

Second, we must obtain the data that is required to test that model.

Inevitably and for ever, we are barred from obtaining the needed data for non-literate tribes which have disappeared.

The research will obtain case-study data using observation and interviews.

In the classroom, when you obtain new data from a language helper, always listen several times before mimicking.

The aims of the programme were to obtain data and evidence for the technical and practical aspects of feasibility.

The difficulty was always to obtain sufficiently high-quality data within a defined area.

present

Kondratieff presented few data for growth from 1789 to 1814 from countries other than Britain because they had little growth to analyse.

This section has just presented some statistical data on such differences.

However, the overall pattern which is presented by Beattie's data suggests a rather more complicated picture.

Therefore, we considered all subjects as belonging to one group when presenting the data for the these parameters.

The transition of the Course to a new structure and regulations in 1985-86 presented a unique data processing challenge.

First, it must present technical data on safety in a way that will encourage public debate.

We have presented our data in the same way as MacKenzie and Jefferies from Oxford.

process

This is the sharp end of modern cartography, a revolution in processing geographic data for practical uses.

This unique ability to determine how to process the data is usually referred to as self-organization.

Dennis's mornings were fully taken up meeting clients, delegating responsibilities, processing figures and accessing data .

Or, different nets may need to process data simultaneously to produce a combined result.

The knowledge workers in the insurance company were responsible for processing this mass of data to maintain operational control of the business.

Retraining of the network to adapt to changes in the operating environment requires only processing time and new data .

This notice orders a data user to cease processing personal data immediately.

The neural network approach requires fewer resources than conventional statistical methods, and further, can process data in real time.

provide

Satcoms based on modern digital satellites like C-Sat could provide affordable data links.

Arcstar global services provide managed data , multimedia and Internet services to some of the largest companies in the world.

We regret that we can not provide data or answer queries on articles or projects that are more than five years old.

This means that initial conditions need to be specified soas to provide the data for the first set of calculations.

SmartStream provides data access, distribution, presentation and development functions for managing purchasing, asset management and manufacturing systems.

The behavioural specialists are responsible for providing data and attitudes for the policy-makers which should redress the balance. 11.

It provides data on mobility as related to job change primarily for people in management, professional and technical occupations.

Energy management Science offers a key to solving environmental problems by providing more data to construct better predictive models.

show

Table I shows the demographic data .

It will also show you which data files are associated with which applications.

Jones showed these data to Fleischmann and Pons on 23 February.

This chapter discusses these forms of the logical schema and also shows how the data structures might be described to the database.

Multiple-outcome scales, often used to show two series of data simultaneously, are another danger in business graphics.

Results Table I shows clinical data for all 23 patients.

A, Sample traces showing examples of the data from which panel B was compiled.

store

Microcomputers can not store as much data as the larger computers nor can they process it as quickly.

It has a kind of cassette tape that stores the data from your hard drive.

To store more data and programs when the power is off, most computers use magnetic discs.

But more important, they stored their data in the digital form that computers so readily digest.

They have become smaller, faster and able to store huge amounts of data .

Flash memory is a type of semiconductor chip used to store data in computers and electronic devices.

Loading and storing the data Manchester Computing Centre has a crucial role to play in the care of the datasets.

It started out giving me many write errors and finally refused to store any data at all.

suggest

The data suggest that gender role is influential.

The data suggests that it is a bad idea if you are heavy cigarette smokers.

Deuterostome radiations Molecular data r6-8 suggest a profound evolutionary gulf between deuterostomes and protostomes.

Comparative data in Chapter 3 suggested that in most countries few adults are political gladiators.

The data provided suggest that in all cases the prevalence of morbidity increases significantly with age.

More recent data suggest that that trend is accelerating.

These data suggest that the risk of liver damage is greatest in patients with active viral replication before operation.

Moreover, the data suggest that Baumol-type models can account for only a very small proportion of total transactions balances.

use

It is possible to use less than eight data planes and still get good results.

Software Systems: Software for telephone companies; computer data management software for scientific community and others using large amounts of data.

But it had always used its copious data for control rather than for information.

There is nothing wrong with developing an additional test set using hypothetical data .

The software then does the calculations, using built-in data on the energy cost of traversing different kinds of terrain.

It uses multiple media data types.

This means that they should use data that are based on people and defined events.

School profiles were written using data from 1a, 1b, 2a and 2b.

PHRASES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

comparative figures/data

Comparative figures Prior year comparative figures have been restated to conform to the current year's presentation where appropriate.

I do not want the comparative figures to be distorted.

Inspection of the comparative figures is both instructive and startling.

Significance levels for comparative data were determined by the Wilcoxon signed rank test.

The comparative figures for 1991 were 25 and 19 respectively.

The comparative figures one year later of 14% and 10.9% are still worrying.

The most reliable of these comparative data measure voting in national elections.

Whichever option societies take, comparative figures for the new disclosures will be required.

legacy data

EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

All the data shows that these animals are more adaptable than we thought.

He has to trawl through vast amounts of economic data .

The spacecraft has sent back new data about Jupiter's atmosphere.

This computer can store as much data as many larger models.

EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS

A direct reading from graphical or tabular data is usually carried out successfully by a high proportion of low attainers.

As a result a good model of the system may be obtained from a much smaller corpus of data .

It was recognised that several sources might have to be approached in order to obtain comprehensive data on this subject. 4.

Suppose we wish to send binary data along a telephone line.

They emerged as I began thinking about and writing about the data I collected.

Trade was also cautious ahead of today's economic data , notably December retail sales and producer prices.

Longman DOCE5 Extras English vocabulary.      Дополнительный английский словарь Longman DOCE5.