Meaning of PUBLIC in English

PUBLIC

I. adjective

COLLOCATIONS FROM OTHER ENTRIES

a matter of public record formal (= something that has been written down so that anyone can know it )

His salary is a matter of public record.

a member of the public

Members of the public were invited to put forward suggestions.

a public apology

The authorities published a public apology in the newspaper.

a public appeal

She made a public appeal for the return of the ring.

a public appearance

In his first public appearance since his election, the President-elect ruled out talks with the United States.

a public beach (= for everyone to use )

The public beaches were very dirty.

a public building

The town has a number of interesting public buildings, including the old town hall.

a public comment

The jury are forbidden from making public comments.

a public debate (= in which people put forward their ideas publicly, so that everyone can form an opinion. )

He called for a public debate on race and discrimination.

a public demonstration (= by members of the public )

A series of public demonstrations have been held in cities across the country.

a public denial

He refused to make any public denial.

a public duty (= relating to the people of a country )

The media has a public duty to report the truth.

a public engagement

She appeared with her husband at many public engagements.

a public execution (= in a public place. with people watching )

Bethea's hanging on August 14, 1936 was the last public execution in America.

a public inquiry (= one which is open to members of the public )

MPs are demanding a public inquiry into the explosion at the nuclear power station.

a public lecture (= a lecture which the general public are allowed to go to )

He’s going to deliver a public lecture on politics in the Middle East.

a public library (= a library that is supported by government money )

Our public libraries need more support.

a public relations/PR consultant (= one who advises an organization on how to relate well to the public )

a public scandal (= one that people know about and discuss )

The award was soon the centre of a public scandal.

a public speaker

He was a good public speaker.

a public statement (= one made in public )

We will be making no public statements about the matter.

a public toilet especially BrE

He set off across the square in search of a public toilet.

a public/listed company (= offering its shares for sale on the stock exchange )

a public/open meeting (= that anyone can go to )

A public meeting was held to discuss the proposal to build a new school.

a public/popular protest

The announcement led to widespread public protests.

at (the) public expense (= paid for by the public through taxes )

The bridge was built at public expense.

bow to public pressure

Congress may bow to public pressure and lift the arms embargo.

certified public accountant

closed to the public/visitors etc

The castle is closed to visitors in winter.

common/human/public decency (= standards of behaviour that are expected of everyone )

The film was banned on the grounds of public decency.

general public

health education aimed at the general public

government/public/state policy

Government spending is determined by government policy.

government/taxpayers'/public money

More taxpayer’s money should be spent on the railways.

international/great/popular/public etc acclaim

Their recordings have won great acclaim .

international/public etc renown

He has won world renown for his films.

is...in the public domain

The information is not currently in the public domain .

Office Of Public Sector Information, the

open to the public

In many schools, governors’ meetings are not open to the public .

popular/public opinion (= what ordinary people think about something )

How much do newspapers influence popular opinion?

popular/public sentiment (= what most people think )

He was more in touch with public sentiment than many of his critics.

public access channel

public affairs (= events that affect the people of a country )

He was active in public affairs in his region.

public affairs

He took an active part in public affairs.

public anxiety

the wave of public anxiety about food safety

public approval (= from ordinary people )

The policies met with a great deal of public approval.

public assemblies

Police have imposed conditions on public assemblies.

public attitudes/people’s attitudes

Public attitudes have changed.

public bar

public clamour

Trouillot disregarded the growing public clamour for her resignation.

public company

public concern (= felt by the public )

Public concern about the destruction of the rain forests could harm the timber business.

public confidence

The changes should improve public confidence in the system.

public consultation (= asking for for ordinary people's views )

The first public consultations considered environmental and health issues.

public controversy (= among the ordinary people of a country )

His book sparked off a public controversy about the issue.

public convenience

public corporation

public criticism

As a politician, you have to get used to public criticism.

public defender

public disquiet

public disquiet over deaths in police custody

public domain

The information is not currently in the public domain .

public donations (= from the public )

The project was financed by public donations.

public health

a danger to public health

public holiday

public house

public housing

public investment (= investment by the government or state )

There have been drastic cuts in public investment in housing.

public limited company

public morals (= the standards of behaviour, especially sexual behaviour, expected by society )

the corruption of public morals

public nuisance

The nightclub has been declared a public nuisance .

public nuisance

public opinion

Public opinion is shifting in favor of the new law.

public opposition

Public opposition has blocked the building of nuclear power stations.

public outcry

The closure of the local hospital has caused a huge public outcry .

public ownership

The Opposition intends to bring the industry back into public ownership.

public perception

the public perception of the government’s performance

public persona

Joel has a cheerful public persona but in private he’s different.

public prosecutor

public recognition

He won public recognition for his work when he was awarded an MBE.

public records (= records of births, deaths etc, that the public are allowed to look at )

He found the information while examining public records.

public relations exercise (= done in order to improve the relationship between the public and an organization )

a public relations exercise

public relations

They ran their own successful public relations business in London.

public right of way

The path is not a public right of way .

public safety

The police must put public safety first.

public school

public scrutiny (= by the public )

Much of the work that we do is open to public scrutiny.

public sector

a job in the public sector

public servant

public service

efforts to improve quality in public services

public service (= work done for the public or the government )

a career in public service

public services

There has been a decline in public services in recent years.

public spectacle

The trial was turned into a public spectacle .

public television

public transit American English (= buses, trains etc )

promises to improve public transit

public transport (= buses, trains etc that are available for everyone to use )

We recommend that you travel by public transport.

public transport

public transportation (= buses, trains etc )

The city needs to improve its public transportation .

public utility

public works

the public works department

public/government/state expenditure (= money a government spends on the services it provides for people )

The Conservatives want to maintain a firm control on public expenditure.

public/government/state spending

The government is determined to keep public spending under control.

They called for increased government spending on education.

public/popular anger

By now public anger in America was mounting.

public/popular outrage

The case generated public outrage.

public/popular pressure (= pressure from the public )

He faces mounting public pressure to resign.

public/popular support

There seemed to be no popular support for war.

public/popular taste

The shop created a unique style of goods that appealed to the popular taste.

public/private/personal morality

the decline in standards of personal morality

The authorities are protectors of public morality.

public/private/state ownership

The company was returned to private ownership in mid-1987.

retire from public life

Her drink problem has forced her to retire from public life .

sb’s/sth’s public image (= the image that many people have of someone or something )

Her public image does not reflect the way she behaves in private.

the public conscience (= people’s idea of what is right or wrong )

This scandal shocked the public conscience.

the public dole

How many people are on the public dole ?

the public imagination

The story captured the public imagination.

the public purse (= money controlled by the government )

Election expenses are met from the public purse .

the public reaction (= what the public think about something that happens )

The public reaction was less than encouraging.

the public sector (= businesses controlled by the government )

The government has been holding down pay in the public sector.

the public sphere (= public positions and activities )

Men still controlled the public sphere.

the public/national mood (= the mood of the people in a country )

The public mood was one of anger and frustration.

COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS

■ NOUN

access

A Cornish Coastal Footpath has been opened to give the public access to walk along the cliffs.

That would not bode well for public access .

In problematical cases the following test might help - Has the general public access ?

The College of Law premises are not a place of unrestricted public access .

The draft emphasises the use of best available technology and maximising transparency and public access to information on pollution control.

The main aim must be to find a public use providing public access .

The introduction of a new support system to encourage public access and conservation-friendly farming methods.

He also called for existing club members to provide greater public access to their clubs.

address

His own followers cheered him repeatedly as the rhetoric boomed out through the slight electronic distortion of the public address systems.

They gathered each night in a 228-car parking lot, speaking over a public address system.

He didn't see why he shouldn't have a stab at the more serious mode of public address .

Yes, there is a public address system, but I don't believe that is working either.

The doors had come open and there was a voice on a public address system shouting something.

All it lacks is the screaming public address announcer to be a total steal, and a bad one at that.

Selection of appropriate communication media, including the use of notice boards, paging devices and public address systems.

In 1993, when they re-emerged to give public addresses , they numbered 24.

affair

If you wish to receive a leaflet contact the public affairs department at John Wood House.

The second is a measure of awareness of and exposure to politics and public affairs .

He was at the Congress very young and he appears to be particularly dedicated to public affairs .

They cited internal government guidelines against talking to reporters without prior approval of agency public affairs officers.

Also under review are the actions of a high-ranking Army public affairs officer, Col.

She too endured harsh criticism and partisan pressure for becoming openly involved in public affairs .

attention

Television also received a disproportionate amount of public attention in the press and parliamentary debate.

Scant public attention has greeted the arrival of the children.

They chose to attract public attention and demonstrate contradictions in justice and the law by criminal acts.

Government service also brought Mr Packard unaccustomed public attention and made him and his company a magnet for controversy and protest.

I believe that perhaps the best example is an accident which attracted hardly more than the most casual public attention .

The firm eventually settled on a strategy of attempting to focus public attention on its superior sales staff and customer service.

Media coverage in the television age ensures that public attention is captured whilst slogans are shouted and wrongs exposed.

Jones said the president will not only have more say over bills but more power to focus public attention on specific issues.

authority

It also figures in the rules governing the legal liability of public authorities .

To keep major construction projects like bridges and tunnels out of the reach of politicians, they created independent public authorities .

That right to freedom of expression includes freedom to impart information and ideas without interference by public authority .

Citizens must have rights of access to information about decisions taken by public authorities in their name.

Homes left empty without good reason by any public authority will be transferred to a better social landlord.

Nor were newspapers controlled by a public authority and subject to competitive franchising.

To meet the challenge the public authority would have to be transformed into a public limited company.

Why should the extent of this activity be of concern to the public authorities ?

body

While it may not provide a specific remedy for the complainant, it can force public bodies to alter policy and procedure.

This does not apply to membership or employment in any public body , e.g., an electricity authority.

Claimants would end up sharing ownership with the current owners, usually local authorities and other public bodies .

Some grants are paid directly to the developer; others are paid to the local authority or other public body .

A public body which has power to construct lavatories can not use that power in order to build a subway under a street.

The alleged function of the leave requirement is to protect public bodies from harassment by citizens bringing cases of no merit.

building

The fabric of our schools, public buildings and roads store up bigger and bigger bills for the future.

The latest shocks caused panic among some 50, 000 people sleeping in tents, campers and public buildings .

The pub is the only public building serving the Trendlewood estate and its 3,000 residents.

In many towns I stopped in, the public buildings were a store, a gas station, and a museum.

Simpson's first public building was the Gothic St Andrew's chapel of 1816.

The photographer also assembles an assortment of major public buildings whose poor designs have done their own damage to the city.

All towns were primitive, and contained very few public buildings .

Many jurisdictions have required nonsmoking areas in restaurants or banned smoking in public buildings .

company

Table A in the Schedule to the Act specifies articles of association for both private and public companies limited by shares.

In a public company , the value is the market price of the stock.

As a means of assuring us that the management of large public companies do not wield arbitrary power it is unsatisfactory.

By s. 282 of the 1985 Act every public company must have at least two directors.

SoftKey shares rank dead last in three-month performance among 210 Massachusetts public companies watched by Boston Capital.

Many public companies have issued non-voting A ordinary shares.

It must also qualify as one of Britain's oddest public companies .

concern

Surveys of long-stay hospitals exposed such anomalies in the 1960s and 1970s, creating much public concern .

Are all activities in schools and government offices matters of public concern ?

It also, however, had come to be seen as a cause of public concern .

Short of murder, whatever occurred between husband and wife was not considered by Locke to be of public concern .

The failure to recognise the difference between public concern about standards and public concern about price is what makes the Bill deficient.

Not about matters of public concern .

The Prime Minister was clearly motivated by growing public concern about education and the work of the schools.

confidence

In addition, openness by companies is the basis of public confidence in the corporate system.

He stood by his convictions and had little difficulty in keeping public confidence .

The probe was aimed at restoring public confidence in the service, she said.

If these events became regarded as a norm for science then public confidence would be threatened.

Equally important, although in many ways distinct, was a perceptible decline in public confidence .

But a balanced reply must take account of less tangible issues like legislative simplicity and public confidence .

As a result, public confidence in the good faith and competence of the DTi has been shaken.

The statisticians are rightly extremely troubled by the loss of public confidence in official figures.

corporation

Obviously, a public corporation is different.

The courts have long held that partners in private partnerships have greater obligations to each other than do shareholders in public corporations .

The Radio Française is a public corporation .

Co. surmounted a similar set of challenges when it moved from a partnership to a public corporation .

Mr Simmons said firms waited an average of 81 days for payment from larger companies and public corporations .

This is partly due to the privatization programme which has been implemented in recent years and has reduced the number of public corporations .

A public corporation managing a monopoly might do so in a sectional interest.

debate

Quiet changes in design appear only to be relevant to new areas, so that public debate and understanding is limited.

This was particularly the case on college campuses, where the young radicals of the New Left dominated public debate .

Doubts over Bush's health, however, provoked renewed public debate over Quayle's competence.

If the course of public debate is unruly, it has a happy result.

If it hangs together too long, it will create a dangerous lack of public debate .

Health care dominated the public debate in the presidential campaign four years ago.

As with the Doomsday scenario, this further militarisation of the police occurred without public debate or accountability.

The contentious rules will once again be opened to public debate , Thompson said.

display

There's no rough stuff from the police - nothing you could file a complaint about - just an unexpected public display .

Halle wanted privacy for her and got public display .

Naturally, the public display of great works of art led to a demand for imitations for enjoyment by wealthy individuals.

The elaborate public displays of those royal families had always camouflaged the most ruthless power struggles.

Sean Pierce of Fort Smith, Arkansas, was charged with violating a law banning the public display of obscene material.

This involves vehicle and foot patrols, public displays , and meeting local dignitaries as well as visiting places of work and schools.

A characteristic of human verbal expression of pain is that it contains a mixture of private suffering and public display .

Home photography was not for public display , but for fun with friends.

domain

The upshot, Mace hopes, is that interface copyrights will be broken and will therefore pass into the public domain .

During the four decades following the Civil War, 183 million acres went out of the public domain into railroad ownership.

Broadly, the purpose of the City Code is to protect the shareholder in the public domain .

Municipal marketing and civic entrepreneurship were responsibilities now lodged firmly in the public domain .

The possibility of penal cancellation charges in the public domain is a rumour.

Indeed as the public domain has become more impersonal and technical so the family has increased in importance.

It was inevitable that women would lay claims to enter the public domain .

Raising the matter in the public domain is not advocated.

education

Strolling, they pondered public education versus private schooling.

First, we had public education before we had Social Security.

What does worry them, says Catherine Wannier, a young Buenos Aires postgraduate, is their own ailing public education system.

Even in the North, the conditions of public education did not approximate those existing today.

It also emphasized the importance of public education about constitutional and electoral changes.

Simply pumping more money into the public education system only would perpetuate the status quo.

This chapter addresses only those questions concerning religion and public education that are of greatest relevance to teachers and students.

Ignorance: to be eliminated by universal, free public education . 5.

enterprise

First, the political demands on public enterprises lead to objectives that are confusing, changeable and often mutually at odds.

The private sector often complains about public enterprise , arguing that government should not compete with business.

In addition, as argued above, there are great difficulties in assessing the performance of public enterprises .

The minister of public enterprises has ordered that 50 percent of all accounting for state-owned companies be placed with black firms.

It was the difference between a vast public enterprise , and a local farmer making a living as economically as he could.

This study will take a different approach to identifying the peculiarities of public enterprise industrial relations.

Workers in other public enterprises were also prevented from striking although this did not stop strikes by postal and railway workers.

As a result of the government's programme, the weight of the public enterprise sector was significantly curtailed.

expenditure

The 1979 government was returned with a mandate to cut public expenditure .

Initially the results were very disappointing as public expenditure continued to grow.

A scholar wants to know which factors are crucial for explaining high public expenditure .

This trend, moreover, has not been halted by the recent government cuts in public expenditure .

This inevitably brings into focus the procedure for the planning, monitoring and control of public expenditure .

The definition of public expenditure is by no means clear-cut and must depend upon the question at issue.

The government treats asset receipts not as a means of financing the budget deficit, but instead as negative public expenditure .

eye

Unlike Blanche, he enjoyed the cases he worked on being in the public eye .

In this 1996 boom, as in the 1994 crash, the fund managers have operated far out of the public eye .

The controversy created by the research suddenly put Hector's dolphin firmly in the public eye .

Instead she began a 57-year voyage almost continuously in the public eye .

The real tragedy of Tony Bland is that he is in the public eye .

But her lack of experience at being in the public eye sometimes shows.

They tell the story of a life lived in the public eye , but now 45 are up for sale.

Recently, Mr Gore has appeared increasingly presidential in the public eye during the escalating budget talks.

funds

Securing public funds made available for urban regeneration has been a key target.

He supported keeping the California Academy of Sciences in the park and spending millions in public funds to rehabilitate it.

He faced at least three other trials of misusing public funds and business fraud.

No wonder he is taking nearly $ 30 million in public funds to underwrite his second campaign.

You must bear in mind the need to safeguard public funds and observe security requirements.

The use of public funds to clean up the jusen mess will be the main focus of the session.

A lot of public funds could have been saved that way.

He deplored previous scandalous seizures of public funds by unscrupulous individuals and politicians.

health

Local public health authorities and water sports authorities have issued warnings about the risk from Weil's Disease.

Objectives: A.. Use diverse communication methods for wider and more effective delivery of critical public health messages.

This is called cost effectiveness analysis and is regularly used in defence, public health and other fields.

Where policy has to be settled over such matters as public health or education, statistical and factual material is needed.

Although the tasks of public health doctors are always changing, their goal remains firm: improving the health of the population.

In 1983, public health and social welfare received one of the biggest expenditure cuts of all the public sectors.

It provided year-by-year evidence of prevailing trends in public health .

Is the war waged in the name of morality, public health , behavior or fighting crime?

holiday

As well as your annual holiday entitlement, the Company observes the usual statutory bank and public holidays.

Is the education department closed on public holidays ?

The birthday of the Prophet Mohammad is known as Eid-e-Milad-un-Nabi and is a public holiday .

A working day is any day except Sunday or a public holiday .

The public holidays should reflect that.

Don't we have enough public holidays without adding to them?

Overlapping, consecutive, or duplicate spells of sickness absence were merged after taking account of weekends and public holidays .

house

The board took four off-sale licences in the locality into account when considering an application for a public house licence.

All the remaining public houses do bar meals and meals.

Until the 1950s the village had a chapel, a school, two shops and a public house .

At the present time there is only the public house left.

One useful change has been the restoring of parity of permitted hours for clubs opening with those enjoyed by public houses .

Many of the smaller gaols formed the rear of public houses with the publican doubling his duties with that of gaoler.

All these major brewing companies were required to release up to 50 percent of the public houses they owned, in excess of 2,000 outlets.

The accident outside the George public house at Gravesend followed violence in the town centre.

image

Her public image is that of a sassy mystic, but she has the showbiz mastery of a Gloria Swanson.

Gore masterfully played off his public image as a stiff, wooden personality who leaves audiences sitting on their hands.

It was upon them that the legal profession focussed in the early 1970s in an attempt to improve its tarnished public image .

Their public image is all important.

Attempts were made to improve the public image of the police.

What do they think of her public image ?

The mining industry, which seldom has had a good public image , found its input was being ignored.

With his wide-ranging connections and relatively positive public image , Qiao is a strong candidate for top leadership.

inquiry

Keepsafe appealed, a public inquiry followed and ruled against the company.

We have had to fight for a public inquiry and we have had to fight for everything.

They flew barrage balloons, commissioned perspectives and held a public inquiry .

A public inquiry is due to be held in August.

Without delving into the legal niceties too deeply, the procedure of a public inquiry generally takes the following form.

Experience has shown that public inquiry reports are long and difficult to follow.

As such they can not be ignored, unlike the findings of a public inquiry which are purely advisory.

Appeals can be decided either through a public inquiry or by written representations.

interest

He suggested that these proposals were contrary to the public interest and to justice.

Five men doing handstands are likely to be regarded as a conspiracy against the public interest .

This was not in the public interest . seconded the motion.

Trusts for performance seem also to have been enforced, at any rate where there was a public interest .

Councils charged with caring for the public interest start to panic at the thought of this oversized weed with its excruciating sap.

The organisation recommends that participating nations establish home offices to arouse public interest and collect contributions.

Perhaps, then, there is a public interest in curbing the study of economics.

Most people would agree though that there is evidence clearly inconsistent with some aspects of the public interest view.

knowledge

How she had learned that he had the painting, which was not a matter of public knowledge , is unknown.

How all of this came about is not yet public knowledge .

The full picture will not become public knowledge .

Blinder said he favors increased public knowledge about the intentions of policymakers at the secretive Fed.

His argument seemed to be based fearlessly on the refusal to recognise what is already public knowledge about our plans.

From 1873 until 1889 his whereabouts were public knowledge , first locally, later worldwide.

The telephone was just as it should be, with no bugging device to turn his private conversations into public knowledge .

I had been on the committee but had resigned, and that was certainly by then a matter of public knowledge .

library

This serious quality in the public libraries survived into the interwar years.

Currently eleven of her works are in print, and a good number of others are available in public libraries .

Perhaps the most interesting questions relate to subject demand in public libraries , linked to the activity of stock revision.

At the public library downtown I return obsessively to the photographs of concentration camps.

Our objective is to create a searchable electronic public library of research in international health.

Nevertheless there is a clear case for its practice in public libraries , and even in university provision for undergraduates.

Fiction classifications are used extensively in public libraries .

There may be other local groups who can be contacted through lists kept at public libraries , or Citizen Advice Bureaux.

life

Mr Montesinos's influence stretched into every arm of public life .

Politics no longer served as the centerpiece of citizens' public lives .

He never wanted to live in the public life .

In which case it would make more sense to elect proven adulterers instead of discouraging them from public life .

No wonder we are personally repulsed and cynical about public life and those who inhabit it.

When his own business affairs fell into a state of disarray in 1773, he was forced to withdraw from public life .

After all, both men came into public life with private histories.

meeting

Encourage engineers to speak at public meetings , discussions, seminars and conferences to promote public awareness of risk issues.

They started with a public meeting in St Peter's Fields - in Manchester, you know.

Depressingly, the Labour party managed to run an entire campaign without exposing its candidate to genuine scrutiny at public meetings .

A second public meeting was called.

C: Steady on, this is a public meeting .

Charge was 75 per hour, for the duration of the public meeting only.

She addressed her last public meeting at the age of ninety-one at a garden party arranged by her daughter.

Hundreds of residents had a public meeting in the village hall to hear Ken Hind explain about the bypass.

money

But it couldn't be privatised without a large injection of public money .

The actual implementation of these programs involves collection of revenues and disbursement of public money , budgeting, accounting, and purchasing.

It's believed tens of thousands of pounds of public money has been misused.

Critics who say using public money for such programs could violate the wall between church and state.

A lot of public money went into trying to save what could be saved, or to help companies redeploy.

Unfortunately, the Crown Court which is the greatest source of the waste of public money is not being attacked.

It will bring greater clarity into choosing how to spend public money on health.

The more he describes the plight of public services, the more voters are reminded of the need for more public money .

nuisance

Married sheep-farmer Wadland, 29, was jailed for five years after admitting making threats to kill and being a public nuisance .

Those who reside or work where zoning laws prohibit public nuisances need not apply.

Edith would have an action under s. 4 and an action in public nuisance .

Tell that woman she is a public nuisance .

The aim of the law of public nuisance is to prevent interference with the rights of the public at large.

It also alleges violations of state and federal antitrust laws and public nuisance laws.

Consequently, odours may amount to a public nuisance if they substantially inconvenience a sufficient number of people.

She should be declared a public nuisance and paved over for a parking lot.

office

The early introduction of merit systems deprived them of patronage, and nominations for public office were outside their control.

It's doubtful she ever has taken a single day of unpaid leave during any of her innumerable campaigns for public office .

All of the former officers remained stripped of their rank and were barred from holding public office .

Which is one reason I could never run for public office .

The tribunal concluded that he should be dismissed and banned for three years from public office , forfeiting his seat in parliament.

He then sought without success an appointment to public office .

They might also be banned from holding public office for a period determined by the courts.

In many ways it should have been the most satisfying celebration of his years in public office .

official

Mrs Chan, Hong Kong's most popular public official , consistently proved a staunch defender of its autonomy.

Anyone who has traveled in Third World countries is aware that the favors of public officials are customarily and blatantly for sale.

I give you my word as a public official , and a friend.

Teachers and administrators found to be either public officials or public figures have a higher burden of proof in defamation suits.

Other courts have held that superintendents are public officials .

The state is an autonomous actor, composed of public officials making decisions.

Can the New York Times standard be applied to others besides public officials ?

He holds more press conferences than any major public official in the country-at least two, and usually three, a week.

opinion

But the culprit is protected and the public opinion of careless, cruel money-making farmers is reinforced.

Difficult political decisions should not be left to the snap judgments and popular distemper of public opinion , Hamilton wrote.

Berg tapped into the unpalatable side of public opinion , becoming addicted to verbal wind-ups and hostility with fatal results.

The act turned public opinion against such executions and led King Charles to prohibit hangings for her sort of crime.

The last decade of the nineteenth century saw the development of a considerable antipathy to trade unionism among influential public opinion .

The new popular press played a crucial role in orchestrating public opinion over the affair.

Several opposition parties interpreted Mr Gonzalez's attitude as defiance of public opinion .

order

Devoted to public order and financial stability, he presided over and accelerated the collapse of both.

Mexicali Mayor Victor Hermosillo staunchly defended his police officers, saying they simply were maintaining public order .

This was a power suggested by Lord Scarman, but only on the grounds of threats to public order .

This does not mean that the younger members of the underclass pose no threat to public order .

Over the years, it became the standard public order offence.

In some areas public order and drunkenness offences are down by more than a third.

The arrests were for alleged public order , criminal damage or drugs offences.

outcry

The lack of evidence and the circumstantial nature of the testimony caused a public outcry .

The public outcry over the massacre led to the resignation March 12 of state Gov.

The Thom case was exceptional and gave rise to something of a public outcry .

Hale was permitted to retire quietly, but after a public outcry he was brought back to face charges.

It had been stopped in its tracks by the Railway Inspectorate and a public outcry .

Originally intended to run six months, the study lasted 40 years, until a public outcry in the 1970s ended it.

That bid sparked a public outcry .

In contrast, there was a public outcry in Cleveland over the loss of the Browns.

ownership

Debates over important issues, from nuclear weapons to public ownership , have been settled by manipulation rather than persuasion.

Beck was not proposing public ownership of the generating plants, but he did want the province to build the transmission lines.

Without a significant amount of public ownership therefore, a liberal market system gives companies independence.

Besides, the people of Waterloo had first-hand knowledge of the advantages of public ownership .

Mr Prescott's demand for the tunnel to be taken into public ownership goes beyond existing Labour Party policy.

The Government plans to sell 51 % initially, with 46 % staying in public ownership .

Before 1979 the Conservative party had effectively acquiesced in most of the public ownership measures of earlier Labour governments.

Reduced public ownership has led to increased public regulation.

perception

Privatisation will not inevitably lead to changes in public perception .

Even stock prices rise and fall according to the public perception of how good the leader is.

There were dramatic trends in public perceptions of, for example, the Conservative Party's emphasis on defence.

That could go a long way toward offsetting public perception that regional carriers are less safe.

Despite public perceptions , across the world 7 out of 10 infections are heterosexual.

Should Presley and Jackson divorce, there may be more at stake than pride and public perception .

It also contributed to a negative change in the public perception and image of lawyers.

Few attempts to change public perceptions are achieved easily, nor can they be performed by all members of society.

place

Moscow is considering a ban on alcohol and tobacco advertising in most public places and on transport.

An entire industry has flourished around securing coveted access to public places and people.

Other initiatives Commissions for companies, public places and so on are usually advertised in the press and art magazines.

We see each other in public places and we give each other the nod.

It became an offence for anyone in charge of children to allow them to bet in public places or to enter brothels.

You're on your own, a single man in a smart, public place .

Nineteen whipped and chained in a public place , where they were left to die.

policy

Despite this, primary preventive measures of the sort recommended by Wilson have not emerged in public policy .

What I do offer is realism and a functional understanding of business and public policy .

The law on the issue of consent continues to change because it is based on public policy .

Is there evidence of actual collaboration among the elite in the formulation of preferred public policy ?

Taking account of the view of drunk driving, the plaintiff should be precluded on grounds of public policy from recovering compensation.

The danger apprehended that quack nostrums in public policy can be forced upon the voters by demagogues is demonstrably nonexistent.

Elections may help produce the personnel at the apex of government but they tell us little about likely public policy .

The president was speaking in the lofty but dull rhetoric of public policy .

pressure

Thus the pendulum of public pressure swings back and forth, reflecting the unresolved tensions within public policy.

The group announced an advertising campaign to bring public pressure on lawmakers to sign the pledge.

Mar Lodge has proved that even the most intransigent of ministers will begin to bend to public pressure .

Forest Service officials are aware that public pressure may push them to artificially restore the forest, she said.

Both sides are under mounting public pressure to settle the three-week dispute.

Bowing to private and public pressure , Baer then reversed his ruling in the drug case.

He said they were reacting to public pressure , and that the majority of people did not support Sunday opening.

He faces mounting public pressure to resign.

prosecutor

He was later charged with trespass, and the public prosecutor in Mannheim will this week decide whether other charges will follow.

All prosecutions are undertaken by the public prosecutor , the Lord Advocate, or his subordinates, the procurators fiscal.

On June 14, 1961, at the request of Milan's public prosecutor , it was seized by 25 plain-clothes policemen.

It demonstrated the excesses that are possible in the present climate of confusion and for which the chief public prosecutor has apologised.

Four were arrested on the orders of the chief public prosecutor , but Mr Honecker was let off because of ill health.

school

Composer in residence with Pittsburgh public school system. 1961-64.

Fourteen languages are taught in the public schools .

The parson would swear by Jupiter to show he's a public school man but these old women would have him.

Minnesota had long prided itself on its excellent public schools .

Winning ways NORTH-EAST pupils have won half the scholarships awarded by the public school , Giggleswick, for pupils starting in September.

And the rapidly expanding public school system itself created a huge demand for teachers.

Hold on to the remnants of a once great public school system.

They do provide an opportunity for much that is lacking in public schools .

sector

The Labour Party is largely a trade union party in which unions from the public sector play an increasing role.

In public sector schools in the late 1980s, shortages of government funding were bringing pressures to charge fees.

The sports hall of a public sector facility is used more for aerobics classes than was the case ten years ago.

Beyond the public sector , the cave becomes increasingly difficult, and is accessible only to experts.

Although the operational framework may differ, the opportunity cost of capital is equally relevant to investment decisions in the public sector .

This is in effect saying that the policy makers for the public sector were indeterminate, at that time.

The public sector is primarily composed of nonprofit-making organizations.

This is particularly so where it is taxpayers' money being used to fix public sector systems.

servant

Party officials may perform functions that in non-communist regimes would be reserved for public servants .

Mayor Susan Golding introduced the 52-year-old career public servant in a light-hearted afternoon news conference at City Hall.

But they don't get any credence here and several of our most respected lawyers, doctors and public servants are black.

Appointed for life, they remain the most insulated of public servants .

The Council included a number of former public servants as well as bankers and academics, rather than career politicians.

Something of the concerned public servant had crept into his manner.

Retiring public servants now routinely move into jobs where their previous contacts and responsibilities can enrich themselves and their employers.

One of these public servants is Smokey Bear, whose commercials run all day and night.

service

They waste our public services , and essential repairs are not carried out.

Bottom line thinking simply precludes public service investment.

In the new liberal framework, however, both system redundancy and public service culture are inexorably fading.

It would be a great shame if young people such as Hu were discouraged from seeking careers in public service .

The longer-term implications of liberalization for the public service dimension of electricity have not been adequately considered.

It also might challenge and invite smart graduate students and other young professionals to choose public service over a corporate career.

We will bring private sector enterprise into the public services by encouraging contracting out and competitive tendering throughout government.

Only 13 percent of top federal employees said they would recommend a career in public service .

spending

They also criticised the government for its planned increases in taxes and for failing to curb public spending .

It can be perverted - as Mrs Thatcher will seek to pervert it - into an alternative to public spending .

Yet in spite of all this, a Treasury paper was circulated which sought further public spending cuts that would affect every government department.

The profits from capitalism are redistributed to millions of people, not through taxing and public spending but through collective investment trusts.

Other economic interests wish to restrain public spending .

In the course of its last five years in office, Labour was forced to cut public spending in real terms.

Tough decisions await the Government, not least over public spending .

By contrast, the Conservatives have been able to raise public spending by nearly a quarter in real terms.

sphere

In many respects it seemed that feminist aims regarding women's rights in the public sphere had been achieved.

The public sphere can not be left entirely to the private marketplace.

In common with Butler and Florence Nightingale, illness related to the strain experienced by middle-class women who moved into the public sphere .

Men still controlled the public sphere and often the private.

The cultural move from an autonomous and independent sculpture back to the public sphere inevitably raises the spectre of popular culture.

In the public sphere , women must assume sufficient power to change the cultural imagery and the political landscape.

What nuclear families want from the public sphere and what those living outside nuclear families want are difficult to reconcile.

support

As a major national organisation, commanding massive public support , the Trust's influence in Whitehall is strengthened.

The march is the first test of public support for affirmative action since Gov.

The chairman of Oxfordshire County Council says the bridge wouldn't have been repaired without public support .

That meant more sympathy and thus more public support .

You can not expect public support if you do not have the support of your own ministers.

Workfare systems, in which people contribute some kind of productive labor in return for public support , are certainly an alternative.

Open and shut case, except for such small matters as Slobodan Milosevic's electoral mandates and public support .

Nevertheless, statewide polls still show overwhelming public support for the Games.

transport

This form of public transport was first introduced into London by George Shillibeer in 1829.

We should add that animals and farm produce are no longer allowed on public transport .

She takes little exercise, does not even walk much, and prefers to use the car or public transport .

Most transport investment has gone on road construction and not on public transport.

In addition, public transport is much more subject to direct government policy and to the influence of political decisions.

Research shows that both men and women have some safety concerns when using public transport , especially at night.

Do you have a car or do you rely on public transport ? 2.

If dependent on public transport , the Chamonix bus stops at Grenoble mid-morning.

utility

Then again, various public utility undertakings offer important positions to solicitors.

After its experience with the disease, the public utility company issued an AIDS-specific policy statement and set of guidelines.

The cost of diverting mains services and public utilities can be very expensive and in certain situations virtually impossible.

They were manufacturing, the finance, insurance and real estate group, transportation and public utilities and government.

Does it apply to a public utility which may or may not appear to be similar to a local government?

Of course, Tucson Water is a public utility , and therefore is required to keep its records open to the public.

These include banks, building societies, chemical companies, transportation and public utilities .

They thought of them as public utilities .

works

A similar directive covering public works contracts over £3.5 million is scheduled to come in at the beginning of 1990.

Perhaps it is a movie about the promises and failures of public works in and since the New Deal.

In 1971 it did so in respect of public works contracts.

They had hoped that he would launch great public works projects, ge! a building boom going.

The New Deal showed great ingenuity in designing public works schemes.

At one point, city public works employees were called away from their duties to help in the search.

Borough Councils with their power to offer public works could, as we have seen, deal only very imperfectly with unemployment.

Page was instrumental in the creation of the new Mainan ambitious public works project funded through a public-private partnership.

PHRASES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

Joe Public/Bloggs

But Joe Public will feel aggrieved our No.1 sport is not available to everyone.

She also aims to help Joe Public get rid of those niggling aches and pains.

We're giving away 15 great cotton sweatshirts from Joe Bloggs in various autumnal colours - one size fits all.

You can't go into the recording studio and be Joe Bloggs.

be in the national/public interest

An improper and dominant motive would have to be shown for revealing matters which would normally be in the public interest .

As such, redevelopment may be in the public interest even if it conflicts with local policy.

Matters are somewhat different when we come to dispositions where the modus is in the public interest .

The 1916 Senate hearings produced no debate on the question of whether concern about leprosy was in the national interest .

The insistence that emancipation was in the national interest expressed this.

The judge rejected the argument that publication of the information in an article would be in the public interest .

The period can be extended if continued secrecy is deemed to be in the public interest .

for general/public/private etc consumption

But these things aren't for public consumption .

Far from it, what they say for public consumption appears to be at odds with what they are saying privately.

Most of its contents was judged too personal-and possibly too politically sensitive-for public consumption .

This Government talks tough for public consumption but has no stomach for action.

Those on the right endorse the first half of the argument but not the second, at least for public consumption .

When the media found out, his private exercise of his personal beliefs became a subject for public consumption .

public enemy number one

Rats have been branded public enemy No. 1 in Bangladesh.

She had done nothing wrong, yet between them Rourke and Rebecca were making her feel like public enemy number one.

Taylor has turned into public enemy number one.

team/community/public etc spirit

Good team spirit was built up during lunch before heading out to the second round.

No doubt the team spirit was enhanced.

The specials certainly show the kind of public spirit and professionalism of the Territorials.

These accomplishments, and their new-found team spirit , were celebrated with social play in the evening.

This community spirit even extends beyond Silver Lake proper.

This creates a good working team spirit and everyone helps everyone else out.

This obviated the problem of building team spirit or involvement among the area staff.

Workers' distress can be reduced by adequate and effective reward systems and attention to maintaining a cooperative team spirit .

the general public

Organizers of the president's funeral plan a large ceremony for the general public, and a small, private affair for his family.

She is a poet who is admired by other poets but not well-known to the general public.

Very little official information is given to the general public.

We want the committee to include at least five members of the general public.

Does he accept that the general public will not mind in the least paying to see these magnificent treasures?

Each is covered almost immediately and, so far as the general public is concerned, left virtually without trace.

Federman said this gender difference is consistent with that in the general public.

No Press appeals were made for assistance from the general public.

The symbol gets the same message across to your existing employees, to the business community and to the general public.

They are not responsible to the general public.

This task it has admirably fulfilled, becoming very popular with the general public.

We have made great strides in de-emphasising the beer parties, but not many people in the general public have noticed.

the glare of publicity/the media/public scrutiny etc

the political/international/public etc arena

Another possible problem could emerge from the political arena .

He would therefore argue that conventions are established by their acceptance by those who participate in the political arena .

Moreover, the law is only one method of control over what is placed in the public arena .

Similarly in the international arena , an emasculated politics is incapable of sustaining an effective national defense.

Television's response to the struggle around Clause 28 reflected the status the campaign achieved in the political arena .

The assessment of basic expenditure needs should urgently be removed from the political arena .

They do have a place in the political arena .

the public highway

All citizens have the right to use the public highway .

In suburbia, however, the scourge of the skips tends to descend on the public highway in spring and summer.

So just what are the rules, regulations and guidelines governing the depositing of skips on the public highway ?

The same applied to traditional football except that in this case legislation merely banned the game from the public highway .

the public sector

winds of change/freedom/public opinion etc

EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

public sector employees

a public beach

a public restroom

Can we go somewhere quieter? This place is a bit public .

Could you tell me where the public telephones are?

garbage collection and other public services

I've worked in the public sector all my life, mainly in local government.

In a public statement, Jackson and his wife announced their intention to get divorced.

Is this a public beach?

It is one of the few countries where they still hold public executions.

Jeff was obviously calling from a public place.

proposals to ban smoking in public places

Reiner insisted that public pressure did not influence his decision.

Smoking is no longer allowed in indoor public places.

Thatcher privatized publicly owned industries like electricity and telecommunications.

There's been a big increase in public spending over the past three years.

They're always telling people to use public transport because there are too many cars on the roads.

We need to raise taxes to pay for better public healthcare.

You can get the information from your local public library

You now have to pay to use the public toilets at the station.

EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS

On July 1, 1849, President Herrera called a special session of Congress to consider the questions of public finance.

Soon to be added are some recent initial public offerings, among them Yahoo! and VocalTec.

The markets have shrugged off other harsh public comments about Mr Rubin.

The plan is due to go before a public enquiry next summer.

The upsurge in our activity and in our public demands in the mid-1980s represented a declaration that our tolerance was running out.

We have also seen that there is no mechanical way of deciding whether a function is a public one or not.

II. noun

COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS

■ ADJECTIVE

available

These shears are not generally available to the public , so take this opportunity to acquire a pair now.

The more directly comprehensible parts of the Challenger's programme were thus made available to the public at a provisional stage.

A black and white leaflet is available for the public .

I hope that in future more of this highly professional group's work will be made available to the public .

The aim is to have 1:50 000 geological map sheets for the whole of Great Britain available to the public by 2005.

The information on the register is available to the public .

This information may be made available to the public . 4.2.2.

Mr Pearson said the complete list for Darlington will be made available to the public on May 1.

open

The cellars are open to the public on Fridays only.

Is it open to the public ?

At midnight on July 15, 1885, the gates were thrown open to the public .

It is certainly no sadness for me that I live in a house that is open to the public .

It's open to the public on summer Wednesdays, but numbers are strictly limited to preserve the building.

Almost all the trust's properties are open to the public .

The evening feeds are open to the public on Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays until the end of February.

travelling

While the two sides fight it out, the only winners so far are the travelling public of Stroud.

There have been a number of tragedies involving the travelling public .

And entirely in the interest of the travelling public , you understand.

As I observed in Southampton, that leaves a problem for the travelling public .

Currently, there is no source of redress to which the travelling public can go.

Our primary duty is to the travelling public .

Mr Leech also added that several other services were proving very popular with the travelling public .

wide

Some writing is of undoubtedly high quality and may well find a place in the permanent repertoire of a wider public .

But the depth of the speech's radicalism has not reached a wider public .

This could be a good way to introduce Medau to a wider public .

Beamish decided to communicate such views to a wider public .

The fact that this collection is much stronger on diagnosis than cure should not prevent it reaching a wide public .

Do you think there are lessons for the wider public in the Franks Report?

It was left to Rachel Carson to bring to the attention of a wider public just what the unintended consequences might be.

In terms of their relations with the wider public , the police tend to be a particularly segregated group in society.

■ VERB

close

The carpets were laid on a Sunday when the Palace is closed to the public .

Still being restored, over half the Catherine Palace is closed to the public .

Greenwich Park is closed to the public , but there is limited car parking around Blackheath.

Still family-owned, most are closed to the public - so these photographs and vivid word profiles are all the more valuable.

Notices tell you if Barden Fell is closed to public .

inform

It is intended that the results of the programme will inform the public about policy options.

Considerable efforts were then made to clean out the system but not to inform the public .

The farming industry needs to inform the public about all aspects of their industry and open these up to public discussion.

The report suggests that individual products could be labelled to inform the public about how much electricity the appliances consume.

protect

The firms say it protects farmworkers and the public from dangerous pesticides.

He said he had a duty to protect the public .

They will also do everything practically possible to protect the public .

Those incidents are a salutary reminder of the dedication of police officers to protecting the public .

Conversely, Conservative Members wish to protect the public further from trade union activities.

When firearms are involved you must protect the public .

I deal first with the proposals to protect the public against strikes and other forms of industrial action.

show

It was due to be shown to the paying public in a preview on the Monday evening.

The movement whose new star he became in 1934 soon showed the public how greatly it had gained strength.

Reports of the disaster, albeit strictly censored ones, were shown to the Soviet public for months afterwards.

They merely became more discerning in the façade they showed to the public .

PHRASES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

Joe Public/Bloggs

But Joe Public will feel aggrieved our No.1 sport is not available to everyone.

She also aims to help Joe Public get rid of those niggling aches and pains.

We're giving away 15 great cotton sweatshirts from Joe Bloggs in various autumnal colours - one size fits all.

You can't go into the recording studio and be Joe Bloggs.

be in the national/public interest

An improper and dominant motive would have to be shown for revealing matters which would normally be in the public interest .

As such, redevelopment may be in the public interest even if it conflicts with local policy.

Matters are somewhat different when we come to dispositions where the modus is in the public interest .

The 1916 Senate hearings produced no debate on the question of whether concern about leprosy was in the national interest .

The insistence that emancipation was in the national interest expressed this.

The judge rejected the argument that publication of the information in an article would be in the public interest .

The period can be extended if continued secrecy is deemed to be in the public interest .

for general/public/private etc consumption

But these things aren't for public consumption .

Far from it, what they say for public consumption appears to be at odds with what they are saying privately.

Most of its contents was judged too personal-and possibly too politically sensitive-for public consumption .

This Government talks tough for public consumption but has no stomach for action.

Those on the right endorse the first half of the argument but not the second, at least for public consumption .

When the media found out, his private exercise of his personal beliefs became a subject for public consumption .

public enemy number one

Rats have been branded public enemy No. 1 in Bangladesh.

She had done nothing wrong, yet between them Rourke and Rebecca were making her feel like public enemy number one.

Taylor has turned into public enemy number one.

team/community/public etc spirit

Good team spirit was built up during lunch before heading out to the second round.

No doubt the team spirit was enhanced.

The specials certainly show the kind of public spirit and professionalism of the Territorials.

These accomplishments, and their new-found team spirit , were celebrated with social play in the evening.

This community spirit even extends beyond Silver Lake proper.

This creates a good working team spirit and everyone helps everyone else out.

This obviated the problem of building team spirit or involvement among the area staff.

Workers' distress can be reduced by adequate and effective reward systems and attention to maintaining a cooperative team spirit .

the general public

Organizers of the president's funeral plan a large ceremony for the general public, and a small, private affair for his family.

She is a poet who is admired by other poets but not well-known to the general public.

Very little official information is given to the general public.

We want the committee to include at least five members of the general public.

Does he accept that the general public will not mind in the least paying to see these magnificent treasures?

Each is covered almost immediately and, so far as the general public is concerned, left virtually without trace.

Federman said this gender difference is consistent with that in the general public.

No Press appeals were made for assistance from the general public.

The symbol gets the same message across to your existing employees, to the business community and to the general public.

They are not responsible to the general public.

This task it has admirably fulfilled, becoming very popular with the general public.

We have made great strides in de-emphasising the beer parties, but not many people in the general public have noticed.

the glare of publicity/the media/public scrutiny etc

the political/international/public etc arena

Another possible problem could emerge from the political arena .

He would therefore argue that conventions are established by their acceptance by those who participate in the political arena .

Moreover, the law is only one method of control over what is placed in the public arena .

Similarly in the international arena , an emasculated politics is incapable of sustaining an effective national defense.

Television's response to the struggle around Clause 28 reflected the status the campaign achieved in the political arena .

The assessment of basic expenditure needs should urgently be removed from the political arena .

They do have a place in the political arena .

the population/public/society/world etc at large

Equally important is how a baby communicates back to caregivers and the world at large .

How then did this concept originate, and why has it received such currency among specialists and the public at large ?

However, in spite of that, the availability both here and in Britain should be known to the public at large .

I came and looked around and felt this campus is no different than the society at large .

In some societies the boy-preferring habit seems to have spread from elites to the society at large .

The rise of the Internet has taken that idea from offices to the world at large .

They chattered on among themselves, oblivious to the world at large , lovingly cared for in this cozy place.

the public highway

All citizens have the right to use the public highway .

In suburbia, however, the scourge of the skips tends to descend on the public highway in spring and summer.

So just what are the rules, regulations and guidelines governing the depositing of skips on the public highway ?

The same applied to traditional football except that in this case legislation merely banned the game from the public highway .

the public sector

winds of change/freedom/public opinion etc

EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

He goes out of his way to make sure his public is satisfied.

EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS

As for why the public embraced it?

But he says just as worrying, is the string of unjustified complaints made against him by members of the public .

It recognised the power and the autonomy of the public as a force to be reckoned with; predicted but never ignored.

No Press appeals were made for assistance from the general public .

The general public are, on the whole, pretty conservative about education.

This task it has admirably fulfilled, becoming very popular with the general public .

Longman DOCE5 Extras English vocabulary.      Дополнительный английский словарь Longman DOCE5.