Meaning of RADIATION in English

RADIATION

noun

COLLOCATIONS FROM OTHER ENTRIES

alcohol/lead/radiation etc poisoning (= caused by a particular substance )

a case of alcohol poisoning

radiation sickness

ultraviolet radiation/rays

ultraviolet radiation from the sun

UV light/radiation/rays etc

the sun's harmful UV rays

COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS

■ ADJECTIVE

cosmic

One or two meters of rock will block cosmic radiation .

Another very important factor is long-term exposure to solar and cosmic particulate radiation .

The doctors suspected that his ability to absorb ascorbic acid had been impaired by long exposure to cosmic radiation .

Individual particles in cosmic radiation have extremely high energy, which implies that they are potentially damaging.

electromagnetic

The station, like any other object in orbit, lost energy through radiating it into space as infra-red electromagnetic radiation .

Imagine an object at some definite temperature, electromagnetic radiation being in equilibrium with particles.

A revealing difference between gravitational and electromagnetic radiation is that dipole radiation is absent in the gravitational case.

We are all familiar with the behavior of polarized electromagnetic radiation from Polaroid sunglasses.

In effect, they convert the energy of the electromagnetic radiation into chemical energy.

Electrons, being charged particles, interact readily with electromagnetic radiation .

Light is the form of electromagnetic radiation which our eyes are able to see.

Other forms of electromagnetic radiation include radio, microwaves and X-rays.

external

Nevertheless, the hazardous exposure is unlikely to be monitored external penetrating ionising radiation .

The authors indicate therefore that excesses of prostatic cancer in industrial workforces are unlikely to be due to external radiation .

The recorded doses of external radiation received by the seven fathers were low.

harmful

VDUs are suspected by some of causing eye strain, postural problems and even of spreading harmful radiation across the room.

Substantially smaller amounts of shielding will undoubtedly admit much larger fluxes of harmful radiation .

They screen us from 99% of the sun's harmful ultra-violet radiation - the sort which causes skin cancer.

Large areas, including the United States, continue to get increasingly harmful ultraviolet radiation .

high

To excite an electron out of its bond requires high frequency radiation , falling in the ultra-violet part of the spectrum.

The former, implemented on dense chips, would have a high radiation immunity and would be suitable for use in space.

There is also an increased risk of cancer and high sensitivity to radiation means that radiotherapy can't be used.

The quick, new, high-dose radiation Brachytherapy for cancer patients is also performed at the hospital.

Undoubtedly they were places with magnetic stones and high natural radiation - things much rarer than in our modem technological society.

Fourteen other workers involved in the subsequent clean-up operation also received extremely high radiation doses.

If workers had been in the vicinity, they would have received high doses of radiation .

However, high doses of radiation that damage cells usually produce effects that can be related specifically to the radiation exposure.

infrared

The launcher for the medium-range version will incorporate a projector that produces a beam of infrared radiation .

Dark areas absorb more, are hotter, and give off more infrared radiation .

Shining infrared radiation on the crystal is one.

Diamond absorbs infrared radiation by a slightly more complex process.

We must lift detectors above the atmosphere to study gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet and long infrared radiations .

Consequently in a static diamond there are no charged atoms to interact with the electric field of infrared radiation .

About 7% of the visible radiation and 30-40% of the infrared radiation is reflected from leaves.

All matter at temperatures above that of absolute zero emits infrared radiation .

ionising

Main outcome measures - Parents' employment by the nuclear industry and exposure to ionising radiation at work.

Persinger has suggested that these reports might be hallucinations instilled into the witnesses by the effect of ionising radiation in close proximity.

Nevertheless, the hazardous exposure is unlikely to be monitored external penetrating ionising radiation .

The questionnaire administered to parents included specific questions about work at nuclear establishments and monitoring for exposure to ionising radiation .

This had only been possible before using invasive manometric techniques or ionising radiation .

Apart from the apparent relation with fathers' preconceptual exposure to ionising radiation , we found no other notable associations.

In recent years, radon has been recognised as the main source of human exposure to ionising radiation .

The malignancies in children whose fathers were monitored for exposure to ionising radiation were not unusual.

low

On a practical point I noticed that the colours weren't as bright on the low radiation monitors that I used.

The person often describes previous episodes of low back pain with or without lower extremity radiation .

Electrical equipment is a source of low radiation and it also releases chemicals when warm.

Cancer, genetic defects and accelerated ageing can be caused by exposure to low level radiation .

Reports measuring the effect of lower radiation dosages conflict with these scare stories, sometimes drastically.

natural

This is the technique which detects stored energy in the crystal lattice of minerals, caused by natural radiation .

In brief, the amount can be compared with the rate of natural radiation and so establish the date of a specimen.

Undoubtedly they were places with magnetic stones and high natural radiation - things much rarer than in our modem technological society.

If there is no safe dose cancer rates should increase as the natural background radiation level increases.

nuclear

The application of nuclear and radiation physics sees a steady increase in the number of titles.

There has never been any question of nuclear radiation seeping out.

It isn't nuclear radiation but electro magnetic and magnetic fields that are causing the worry.

solar

But because ultraviolet radiation is a constant feature of solar radiation, the ozone layer is maintained.

Yet the solar radiation from the sun, then a faint, young star, was approximately 30 percent less.

The ionization is produced by solar uv radiation and by energetic ions and electrons from the magnetosphere.

They grow long tails as material streams away from their rocky cores driven by solar radiation .

Water can be lost through dissociation by solar uv radiation and the subsequent loss of hydrogen to space from the exosphere.

If ozone deterioration persisted, they warned, solar ultraviolet radiation would flood Earth.

Capital cost is nearly £7 for every watt of electrical energy to be produced by solar radiation .

ultraviolet

But because ultraviolet radiation is a constant feature of solar radiation, the ozone layer is maintained.

If ozone deterioration persisted, they warned, solar ultraviolet radiation would flood Earth.

The satellite, called Astron, is intended to study ultraviolet radiation and X-rays from celestial objects.

Large areas, including the United States, continue to get increasingly harmful ultraviolet radiation .

However, ultraviolet radiation must also have aided evolution.

The thermal tide may also be responsible for dim ultraviolet radiation observed to come from the middle of the night hemisphere.

The economic consequences for food crops and other plants of the resulting increase in ultraviolet radiation have received less attention.

So ultraviolet radiation from the Sun would have been felt more powerfully then, than now.

uv

The ionization is produced by solar uv radiation and by energetic ions and electrons from the magnetosphere.

Water can be lost through dissociation by solar uv radiation and the subsequent loss of hydrogen to space from the exosphere.

Visible light has a longer wavelength than UV radiation .

The dark markings correspond to regions in the clouds which scatter less solar uv radiation than elsewhere.

■ NOUN

background

This leaves the problem of how to explain the microwave background radiation .

The 20 tonnes of lead in the batteries has been found to have an immeasurably low level of background radiation .

Their cumulative effect would give rise to the microwave background radiation .

The decision follows concern over levels of background radiation in the city's streets.

Levels of background radiation are frequently published in the Moscow press, and a number of environmental consultancies run radiation monitoring services.

Regular checks by it's own monitoring team show only normal background radiation levels.

He says it was only one twentieth of background radiation in Oxfordshire.

In particular, why is the temperature of the microwave background radiation so nearly the same when we look in different directions?

dose

The age of an archaeological specimen can therefore be determined by dividing the total radiation dose by the annual radiation dose.

The maximum and minimum radiation dose to the rectum was calculated in the plane of the planning slice for each patient.

Thorough revision of laboratory routines could substantially reduce radiation doses received.

However, particularly for the gamma-ray contribution, more direct measurement of the radiation dose is usually employed.

When minerals such as quartz and feldspars have received a radiation dose and are then heated, they emit light.

This luminescence is measured and is directly proportional to the number of trapped electrons, and thus to the total radiation dose .

The radiation dose around Sellafield in Britain is about three times lower than in Cornwall.

exposure

Were the limits set on their radiation exposure acceptable?

Added radiation exposure poses little danger, he wrote.

Harwell keeps detailed information on radiation exposure .

The survey also came up with 10 reported cases of cataracts, which can also be caused by radiation exposure .

However, high doses of radiation that damage cells usually produce effects that can be related specifically to the radiation exposure .

He said credit was due to the contribution of workers on the joint committees which look at ways of reducing radiation exposure .

gamma

The conventional treatment for large tumours, deep within the body, is to bombard them with powerful doses of gamma radiation .

Local doses are often underestimated and plexiglass shielding converts some energy into penetrating gamma radiation .

They used two spectrometers to analyse gamma radiation given off by the blanket.

hazard

People throughout the world suddenly became much better informed about radiation hazards .

The radioactivity to which they were exposed was so powerful that the dead men's bodies were themselves a radiation hazard .

level

Regular checks by it's own monitoring team show only normal background radiation levels .

If there is no safe dose cancer rates should increase as the natural background radiation level increases.

sickness

Another 237 people were treated for radiation sickness , some of whom needed bone-marrow transplants to restore their white blood-cell count.

For some, the visit is a welcome break from medical treatment they're receiving for radiation sickness .

Many were orphaned by the disaster, others still suffer radiation sickness .

synchrotron

This is the point at which synchrotron radiation comes to the rescue.

therapy

Souquet etal also emphasised the difficulty in interpreting parietal thickening in patients evaluated after radiation therapy .

The network focuses on a single application: networking powerful computers to help doctors plan radiation therapy for cancer treatment.

Supervised clinical training is provided in cytotoxic drug treatment and radiation therapy .

They also get radiation therapy five days a week throughout that time and for an additional three weeks.

Patient 4 who had been operated on before referral received additional radiation therapy .

The radiation therapy theoretically may have helped.

In two randomised prospective studies, however, no advantage of preoperative radiation therapy could be shown.

Diablo Medical Center for his radiation therapy .

treatment

The mean time interval between completion of radiation treatment and surgery was 10 days.

From Monday to Friday, Amaro, 55, has been receiving radiation treatment .

Voice over Christine has just been given the all clear ... but only after an intensive five weeks of radiation treatment .

■ VERB

absorb

Diamond absorbs infrared radiation by a slightly more complex process.

Scientists can learn much about the nature of an object by studying the way it emits and absorbs light and other radiation .

associate

The penalty for using a reactor is that we must carry the weight of the reactor and its associated radiation shielding.

cause

This is the technique which detects stored energy in the crystal lattice of minerals, caused by natural radiation .

The likely deaths from cancer caused by radiation are still small: 0.1% extra cancers among those affected in 40 years.

The survey also came up with 10 reported cases of cataracts, which can also be caused by radiation exposure.

Medical therapy of diarrhoea caused by chronic radiation enteritis has been largely empirical and there have been no adequate controlled studies.

C, caused by radiation in the environment.

They did not cause any radiation leaks and posed no danger to the environment.

emit

All matter at temperatures above that of absolute zero emits infrared radiation .

Energy lost by electrons as they are evicted from their traps is emitted as light radiation and is termed thermoluminescence.

But a body with a particular temperature must emit radiation at a certain rate.

The lamps emit ultra-violet radiation which has powerful cancer-causing abilities, according to a small pilot study on its effects on mice.

The isotopes are measured by counting their alpha emissions; each isotope emits alpha radiation of a characteristic frequency.

expose

An ordinary body exposed to radiation absorbs some of it and reflects the rest.

If I angered Kosinski, he might eliminate me, the way that Tarden cleverly exposed Veronika to radiation without her knowledge.

The general public is constantly exposed to radiation .

One woman died despite intensive treatment and none had been exposed to radiation or other factors known to cause the disease.

People exposed to radiation at work.

measure

On the ground, teams of scientists will measure the amount of radiation reaching the earth.

produce

The ionization is produced by solar uv radiation and by energetic ions and electrons from the magnetosphere.

Capital cost is nearly £7 for every watt of electrical energy to be produced by solar radiation .

receive

These minerals receive radiation both internally, from the ceramic, and externally, from the burial environment and cosmic rays.

But the crews of high-altitude aircraft, especially on polar routes, can receive significant amounts of radiation over time.

If workers had been in the vicinity, they would have received high doses of radiation .

From Monday to Friday, Amaro, 55, has been receiving radiation treatment.

When minerals such as quartz and feldspars have received a radiation dose and are then heated, they emit light.

For instance, members can now receive radiation oncology, eye surgery, and emergency cardiac care from Summit Medical Center.

For some, the visit is a welcome break from medical treatment they're receiving for radiation sickness.

use

On a practical point I noticed that the colours weren't as bright on the low radiation monitors that I used .

The device uses radiation to destroy tumors and vascular malformations with pinpoint accuracy.

We shall use the term secondary radiation to refer to radiation coming from or absorbed in a plant.

Lunar dirt can easily be used as radiation shielding, and metals can be made as a byproduct of oxygen production.

EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

Clouds prevent the radiation of Earth's warmth into space.

Sensors detected a dangerous level of radiation .

solar radiation

The tumors are treated with radiation .

EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS

Diamond absorbs infrared radiation by a slightly more complex process.

Harmful quantities of radiation are also released both before and after the uranium fuel enters the power station.

Most threatening of these for the marine ecosystem is the exposure to increased ultra-violet radiation through the depletion of the ozone layer.

Souquet etal also emphasised the difficulty in interpreting parietal thickening in patients evaluated after radiation therapy.

The 20 tonnes of lead in the batteries has been found to have an immeasurably low level of background radiation .

The age of an archaeological specimen can therefore be determined by dividing the total radiation dose by the annual radiation dose.

The object's surface is heated by radiation from the atmospheric shock front.

Longman DOCE5 Extras English vocabulary.      Дополнительный английский словарь Longman DOCE5.