Meaning of THEORY in English

THEORY

noun

COLLOCATIONS FROM OTHER ENTRIES

a conspiracy theory (= a belief by a number of people that something is the result of a conspiracy )

President Kennedy’s assassination inspired a lot of conspiracy theories.

big bang theory

conflicting theories

There are conflicting theories about the origin of the universe.

formulate an idea/theory

Darwin formulated the theory of natural selection.

implausible theory/idea/explanation etc

Margaret found his excuse somewhat implausible.

information theory

prove a theory

No evidence emerged to prove either theory.

put forward a theory/hypothesis

Many theories have been put forward as to the building’s original purpose.

quantum theory

steady state theory

subscribe to the view/belief/theory etc

I have never subscribed to the view that schooldays are the happiest days of your life.

the theory of evolution

Many Christians find it impossible to accept Darwin's theory of evolution.

unorthodox view/approach/theory etc

Her unorthodox views tend to attract controversy.

COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS

■ ADJECTIVE

classical

Butaccording to the classical electromagnetic theory presupposed by Bohr's theory, orbiting electrons should radiate.

This gives a vast space of possible states-much more than for afield in classical theory .

Time is not considered in classical theories yet no experiment can be made which does not involve time.

The predictability is as clear-cut as it is in the classical theory .

Friedman's statement of the natural rate hypothesis went a long way towards reconciling such evidence with basic classical theory .

Indeed, what is observed is quite inexplicable on the basis of classical theory .

In contrast, classical game theory supposes rational players, and seeks a solution in terms of how such players would behave.

The classical theory of comparative advantage is often taught as if everyone benefits from trade.

critical

This is that critical theory offers an aesthetic evaluation of works of art.

So would you if you left graduate school in the recession year of 1991 with a degree in something called critical theory .

There are two particular knowledge systems that attract the attention of critical theory: science and mass culture.

This brings us to an approach recently fashionable in critical theory and denoted by the term deconstruction.

Thus, the relationship of critical theory to postmodernism and poststructuralism is indeed a far more complex matter than is commonly assumed.

Through a process of critical appraisal successive theories build on those that go before.

It was left to Jürgen Habermas to establish a more comprehensive account of the basis of critical theory .

Habermas's theory involves a reflexive moment that was present but unsatisfactorily worked out in the earlier versions of critical theory.

economic

Some relate to queries concerning economic theory , others to the nature of the actors involved in political processes.

It all sounds like economic theories , you know.

Elsewhere contradictions between models and economic theory can be noted.

At this point, economists and economic theory have entered the game.

Critics of regulation from the standpoint of economic theory can not have it both ways.

The scientistic rationale was particularly influential in the creation of modern economic theory .

The economic theory of job search has grown into an important aspect of labour economics in recent years.

They cobbled together their economic theories , then, while straddling the secular and the sacred.

general

In Donoghue v Stevenson in 1932 the House of Lords shaped a general theory of manufacturer's liability in tort for products.

The general theory of invariants is thus a part of the theory of constraints.

Such a description must certainly play a role in any general theory of linguistics.

In parallel with the work of the classification theorists, general systems theory has evolved to consider similar problems.

The two theories are the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics.

Freud himself began to develop a general theory of unconscious emotional processes in human societies.

One general psychological theory of the intrinsic nature of indecent jokes is, however, of considerable relevance and practical value here.

Without an advocacy stage few general theories in biology would ever have arisen.

literary

Brooke-Rose's engagement with feminist theory is typical of her encounter with literary theory in general.

Contemporary literary theory has also questioned whether a relation between words and things is easily achieved, even possible.

As far as literary theory is concerned, it is perhaps this more than anything else which constitutes the structuralist revolution.

In literary theory they emerge as Marxism, phenomenology, existentialism, structuralism, poststructuralism, deconstruction.

Tredell's analysis is perhaps too synchronic, suggesting that the various modes of literary theory coexist, whether easily or uneasily.

The result is a range of different genres of literary criticism and literary theory , to some extent distinguished by register.

Fergus was also in the right field, which was literary theory .

The principal characters, Larissa Toren and Armel Santores, teach literature and literary theory at two equally radical universities.

marxist

Most of the views dealt with in the following sections have been influenced by Marxist or Weberian theories of stratification.

This kind of analysis has implications for the Marxist theory of the state.

However Althusser found it difficult to maintain a Marxist theory of history while avoiding its customary Hegelian form.

Socialist and Marxist theories of the state.

The following account represents a simplified version of Marxist theory .

What this means is that there is no way that any hypothesis drawn from Marxist theory can be disproved by empirical investigation.

The points raised in this brief summary of Marxist theory will now be examined in greater detail.

modern

In a striking anticipation of some modern theories , he claimed that humans have intelligence because they have hands.

The scientistic rationale was particularly influential in the creation of modern economic theory .

Berkeley's theory gave rise to the development of modern externalist theories of mental content.

We consider the modern theories of unemployment and inflation in Chapters 26 and 27 respectively.

It is a remarkable testimony to the depths to which modern opening theory extends that this position is still known.

As we have seen, modern theories of Pavlovian conditioning assume that stimuli can activate the representations of other events.

In modern portfolio theory this is defined as the extent to which the construction of the portfolio has eliminated non-market risk.

In 1907 Wedderburn proved one of the fundamental theorems of modern non-commutative ring theory .

political

Having to tackle procedures restricted by legislation also forced us to apply political theories to practical realities without too much compromise.

But it would be equally wrong to treat it as a seminar in political theory ....

Laski's political theory can in general be seen as the product of a pragmatic revolt in politics.

The active influential citizen described ill normative political theory is not excused from the obligations of the subject.

Such points, nevertheless, should not detract from the overall value of his political theory .

Children might as well come from cabbage patches as far as most political and economic theory is concerned.

Most trade unionists had been indifferent to any political theory beyond an instinctive syndicalism which was itself largely confined to industrial disputes.

This tradition itself can be traced back a long way in political theory .

psychological

And feminist psychologists are still predominantly concerned with making egalitarian corrections to traditional psychological theories , rather than working with their uncertainties.

In most cases, general psychological theories have been loosely related to politically relevant behavior.

The biological aspect of woman-centred psychological theories provides them with some theoretical distinctiveness.

A caution was previously made regarding the rejection of psychological theories on emotional grounds.

Lott, for instance, says that anyone interested in making psychological theory generally more interactionist, must be interested in feminist research.

Similarly, one must caution against accepting psychological theories for emotional reasons.

The biological and psychological theories stressed this distinctiveness.

All psychological theories are organic and living and thus changing.

scientific

This list could be greatly extended with accounts of successful predictions and explanations made possible by inductively derived scientific laws and theories .

A scientific theory , not just a rhetorical one.

However, this caveat is a special case of the general truth that any scientific theory is necessarily underdetermined by the evidence.

Fletcher turned his trick into a whole scientific theory .

Darwin's theory is an example of a scientific theory which is chiefly explanatory.

In itself this does not seem to me to point the way towards any helpful scientific theory of mind.

Newton's physical theories , however, are a good example of how a scientific theory may be predictive as well as explanatory.

A scientific theory can not be proved but only disproved.

social

A thorough review of social movement theory and research in advanced industrial democracies.

Most claim to be interactionists, enlisting both biological and social theories .

This presents further developments in social movement theory and research.

This pragmatic movement in philosophy also had a significant impact on the social theory of the time.

It is an experiment in social science theory and method.

The rhetorical perspective has explicitly criticized the one-sidedness of much cognitive social psychological theory and its emphasis upon schematic categorization.

What about people? Social theories abound.

These characteristic ideas of functionalism are found running throughout the theories of sociological positivism, evolutionary social theories, and pragmatism.

■ NOUN

conspiracy

Like all good conspiracy theories , the polio vaccine theory's originators are its worst enemies.

These people have enough conspiracy theories on their plates.

In this way, the strategy proceeds from the same antisemitic assumptions and stereotypes as the more familiar and anti-Zionist conspiracy theories .

The militia is really a direct-mail marketing operation for conspiracy theory videos and a busy interchange on the information superhighway.

The answer is that it is difficult to see a conspiracy theory at work.

Those blacks dedicated to conspiracy theories see white devils behind the murders of both Shakur and Wallace.

This is particularly relevant to the conspiracy theory of politics.

In a world filled with guilt and bitterness, there is no room for self-criticism or objective analysis. Conspiracy theories abound.

quantum

The first derives from the quantum theory .

According to quantum theory , elementary particles do not really exist until an intelligent observer measures them.

Here is the unique point at which the fitful indeterminacy of quantum theory makes itself felt.

Using quantum theory to understand gravity makes as much sense as trying solve a crossword puzzle with the key to your door.

However, in quantum theory , anything that is not actually forbidden can and will happen.

And yet, the most sophisticated experiments have proved quantum theory correct time after time.

In the quantum theory of gravity, on the other hand, a third possibility arises.

In the quantum theory , the appropriate analogous concept is that of a Hilbertspace.

■ VERB

based

How to do research based on their theories has proved difficult for the phenomenologists.

But, like global warming, ozone depletion was based on theory .

This tale of parallel realities claims to be based on quantum theory , and is dressed up with suitable jargon.

The Richards function is based on theories and data about how the relative growth rate should behave.

Our understanding of the world around us is based on theory .

The new formulation is based on attribution theory .

Nor were his warnings a fluke; his ability to provide such foresight was based upon his theory of equilibrium.

develop

Case 1: Linguistics A linguist devises a model of grammar in the process of developing a theory of human cognition.

Scholes originally developed the theory working with Black, who died in 1995.

I have developed a theory to explain recent incidents in the light of what I have learned about you.

But recently my colleagues and I have developed another theory which I think has more interesting implications.

This raises interesting issues: Which assumptions of e-commerce may force you to develop a new theory of business?

It seems however, that adequate professional preparation can only emerge as the result of developing the relationship between theory and practice.

In chapters 7, 8, and 9 we use the differentiated products approach to develop a theory of trade.

explain

He explained the theory of Mastery of Learning, about which he'd spoken before.

Then I will explain the theory .

Can anyone explain the divergence of theory and advice?

This article does not propose to explain the theory behind profit maximisation with price discrimination.

The increase in vapour pressure with temperature can be explained in terms of the kinetic theory .

The diversity of crime accounts for the unconvincing nature of attempts to explain it by all-encompassing theories .

This book explains the relevant theory and related it to classroom activities designed to improve students' discourse skills.

A rising yield curve can be explained by liquidity preference theory .

formulate

One is that it should incorporate Feynman's proposal to formulate quantum theory in terms of a sum over histories.

By the middle of the decade, they had formulated their auteur theory , which gave a new gloss to film studies.

To answer these questions, we have to formulate a theory of the determinants of growth.

A consistent theory of how gravity affects light did not come until 1915, when Einstein formulated the general theory of relativity.

Yet Marx and Engels' determination to formulate general theories eventually made Marxism one of the most successful transnational ideologies.

However, all this was changed when Einstein formulated the general theory of relativity in 1915.

They think, observe, formulate theories , make predictions, and do experiments.

support

Many authors have used the distribution of particular carbonates to support particular theories of continental distribution in the past.

The high core temperatures could also be used to support a theory that became fashionable among geophysicists during the l980s.

There does, however, appear to be very little evidence to directly support such theories which thus remain largely speculative.

But there is little evidence to support that theory .

This case supports the theory that functional disturbances of the thymus may have a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.

The numbers seem to support the theory that Grand Forks voters wanted change.

The most blatant form of selection occurs when a study includes only those cases that support the theory .

Analysts pointed out that there is little historical evidence to support this theory .

test

And testing , mandatory in theory , is not widespread.

They conduct studies with laboratory animals or human volunteers to test their theories or treatments for fatness.

It uses them to test theories in high-status, male-identified areas of psychology, like achievement and self-esteem.

It became possible to test theories about nervous system functions.

In order to test these theories two further stages are required.

But there never has been such a comprehensive study to test the theory .

Parallel demonstration of theory tests the fruitfulness of theory across a range of countries.

To test that theory and several others, the researchers developed and administered a questionnaire to the workers.

PHRASES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

pet project/theory/subject

Both grants represented pet projects of two council subcommittee members.

Different chemists prefer different pet theories, and there is no shortage of theories.

Even as the trajectory of his thought kept rising in the early seventies, the clock was ticking on his pet project.

Even those Hippocratic treatises which inveigh against Presocratic dogmatism are themselves just as dogmatic where their own pet theories are concerned.

His pet project is a biotechnology institute in which state funding will be matched by contributions from the Schering drug company.

Monitoring the telephone conversations of the Kremlin hierarchy had become one of his pet projects over the last few years.

No organization likes being told that it has got to hold back its expansion or abandon some pet project.

The proposals are seen as a pet project of the right wing of the Conservative Party and Conservative students' groups.

the big bang theory

the germ of an idea/theory/feeling etc

It represents the germ of an idea which someday might explode into a national objective.

working definition/theory/title

A pragmatist judge will find room in his working theory of as if legal rights for some doctrine of precedent.

A useful working definition has been provided by the Department of Trade and Industry in Britain.

As a working theory this is impregnable, whether considered sceptically or superstitiously.

Despite the difficulties, the teacher needs a rough working definition.

Is that a reasonable working definition of Paradise?

Like I say, it's just a working title.

The Household of Faith was Brideshead's working title.

We can, however, offer a very general working definition, which seems to feature in most discussions.

EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

Atkin taught political theory at Hunter College.

Darwin's Theory of Evolution

Einstein's theory of relativity

It's my theory that the murderer knew his victim quite well.

music theory

There's a theory that Kennedy was killed by the CIA.

There have been a lot of theories about the meaning of dreams.

This theory helps to explain how animals communicate with each other.

EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS

A hypothesis should be related to a body of theory .

For it is very difficult to specify just how falsifiable a single theory is.

Several theories of planetary formation include the possibility of disturbance to axial spins during the late stages of formation of a planet.

That Leeds was working within the constraints of this theory as early as 1912 is often overlooked.

This is so: but the take-off theory over-simplifies the real process.

Longman DOCE5 Extras English vocabulary.      Дополнительный английский словарь Longman DOCE5.