Meaning of DOWN in English

DOWN

I. ˈdau̇n adverb

Etymology: Middle English doun, from Old English dūne, short for adūne, of dūne, from a- (from of ), of off, from + dūne, dative of dūn hill

Date: before 12th century

1.

a.

(1) : toward or in a lower physical position

(2) : to a lying or sitting position

(3) : toward or to the ground, floor, or bottom

b. : as a down payment

paid $10 down

c. : on paper

put down what he says

2. : in a direction that is the opposite of up: as

a. : southward

b. : to or toward a point away from the speaker or the speaker's point of reference

c. : in or into the stomach

can't keep food down

3. : to a lesser degree, level, or rate

cool down tensions

4. : to or toward a lower position in a series

5.

a. : to or in a lower or worse condition or status

b. — used to indicate thoroughness or completion

dusted down the house

described him down to his haircut

6. : from a past time

stories passed down by word of mouth

7. : to or in a state of less activity or prominence

8. : to a concentrated state

got the report down to three pages

9. : into defeat

voted the motion down

- down to the ground

II. preposition

Date: 14th century

: down along, around, through, toward, in, into, or on

fell down the stairs

down the years

III. verb

Date: 1562

transitive verb

1. : to cause to go or come down: as

a. : bring down 1

down ed the enemy helicopter

b. : consume 3

down ing slices of pizza

2. : to cause (a football) to be out of play

3. : defeat

down a proposal

intransitive verb

: to go down

IV. adjective

Date: circa 1565

1.

a.

(1) : occupying a low position ; specifically : lying on the ground

down timber

(2) : directed or going downward

attendance is down

b. : lower in price

c. : not being in play in football because of wholly stopped progress or because the officials stop the play

the ball was down

d. : defeated or trailing an opponent (as in points scored)

down by two runs

e. baseball : out

two down in the top of the third inning

2.

a. : reduced or low in activity, frequency, or intensity

a down economy

b. : not operating or able to function

the computer is down

c. : depressed , dejected

feeling a bit down

also : depressing

a down movie

d. : sick

down with flu

3. : done , finished

eight down and two to go

4. : completely mastered

had her lines down

— often used with pat

got the answers down pat

5.

a. slang : cool 7

b. slang : understanding or supportive of something or someone — usually used with with

trying to prove that they were down with hip-hop culture — J. E. White

6. : being on record

you're down for two tickets

- down on

- down on one's luck

V. noun

Date: 1710

1. : descent , depression

2. : an instance of putting down

3.

a. : a complete play to advance the ball in football

b. : one of a series of four attempts in American football or three attempts in Canadian football to advance the ball 10 yards

4. chiefly British : dislike , grudge

5. : downer

6. : a fundamental quark that has an electric charge of - 1/3 and that is one of the constituents of a nucleon

VI. noun

Etymology: Middle English doun hill, from Old English dūn

Date: 14th century

1. : an undulating usually treeless upland with sparse soil — usually used in plural

2. often capitalized : a sheep of any breed originating in the downs of southern England

VII. noun

Etymology: Middle English doun, from Old Norse dūnn

Date: 14th century

1. : a covering of soft fluffy feathers ; also : these feathers

2. : something soft and fluffy like down

Merriam-Webster's Collegiate English vocabulary.      Энциклопедический словарь английского языка Merriam Webster.