Meaning of DOWN in English

DOWN

1.

adv., prep., adj., v., & n.

--adv. (superl. downmost)

1. into or towards a lower place, esp. to the ground (fall down; knelt down).

2 in a lower place or position (blinds were down).

3 to or in a place regarded as lower, esp.: a southwards. b Brit. away from a major city or a university.

4 a in or into a low or weaker position or condition (hit a man when he's down; many down with colds). b Brit. in a position of lagging or loss (our team was three goals down; {pound}5 down on the transaction). c (of a computer system) out of action or unavailable for use (esp. temporarily).

5 from an earlier to a later time (customs handed down; down to 1600).

6 to a finer or thinner consistency or a smaller amount or size (grind down; water down; boil down).

7 cheaper; lower in price or value (bread is down; shares are down).

8 into a more settled state (calm down).

9 in writing; in or into recorded or listed form (copy it down; I got it down on tape; you are down to speak next).

10 (of part of a larger whole) paid, dealt with ({pound}5 down, {pound}20 to pay; three down, six to go).

11 Naut. a with the current or wind. b (of a ship's helm) with the rudder to windward.

12 inclusively of the lower limit in a series (read down to the third paragraph).

13 (as int.) lie down, put (something) down, etc.

14 (of a crossword clue or answer) read vertically (cannot do five down).

15 downstairs, esp. after rising (is not down yet).

16 swallowed (could not get the pill down).

17 Amer. Football (of the ball) out of play.

--prep.

1. downwards along, through, or into.

2 from top to bottom of.

3 along (walk down the road; cut down the middle).

4 at or in a lower part of (situated down the river).

--adj. (superl. downmost)

1. directed downwards.

2 Brit. of travel away from a capital or centre (the down train; the down platform).

--v.tr. colloq.

1. knock or bring down.

2 swallow (a drink).

--n.

1. an act of putting down (esp. an opponent in wrestling, or the ball in American football).

2 a reverse of fortune (ups and downs).

3 colloq. a period of depression.

4 the play of the first piece in dominoes.

Phrases and idioms:

be (or have a) down on colloq. disapprove of; show animosity towards. be down to

1. be attributable to.

2 be the responsibility of.

3 have used up everything except (down to their last tin of rations).

down and out

1. penniless, destitute.

2 Boxing unable to resume the fight. down-and-out n. a destitute person.

down at heel

1. (of a shoe) with the heel worn down.

2 (of a person) wearing such shoes; shabby, slovenly. down draught a downward draught, esp. one down a chimney into a room.

down grade

1. a descending slope of a road or railway.

2 a deterioration (see also DOWNGRADE). down in the mouth colloq. looking unhappy. down-market adj. & adv. colloq. towards or relating to the cheaper or less affluent sector of the market.

down on one's luck colloq.

1. temporarily unfortunate.

2 dispirited by misfortune. down payment a partial payment made at the time of purchase. down stage Theatr. at or to the front of the stage. down-stroke a stroke made or written downwards. down time time during which a machine, esp. a computer, is out of action or unavailable for use. down-to-earth practical, realistic. down to the ground colloq. completely. down tools colloq. cease work, esp. to go on strike.

down town

1. into a town from a higher or outlying part.

2 US to or in the business part of a city (see also DOWNTOWN). down under colloq. in the antipodes, esp. Australia. down wind in the direction in which the wind is blowing (see also DOWNWIND). down with int. expressing strong disapproval or rejection of a specified person or thing.

Etymology: OE dun(e) f. adune ADOWN 2. n.1 a the first covering of young birds. b a bird's under-plumage, used in cushions etc. c a layer of fine soft feathers.

2 fine soft hair esp. on the face.

3 short soft hairs on some leaves, fruit, seeds, etc.

4 a fluffy substance, e.g. thistledown.

Etymology: ME f. ON d{uacute}nn 3. n.1 an area of open rolling land.

2 (in pl.; usu. prec. by the) a undulating chalk and limestone uplands esp. in S. England, with few trees and used mainly for pasture. b (Downs) a part of the sea (opposite the North Downs) off E. Kent.

Derivatives:

downy adj.

Etymology: OE dun perh. f. OCelt.

Oxford English vocab.      Оксфордский английский словарь.