Meaning of FUNDAMENTALIST in English
a term used since the 1920's to refer to the most religiously conservative group within Christianity. Within Judaism, Islam and other religions, the term is used to refer to the extreme conservative wing who Karen Armstrong defines as " embattled forms of spirituality, which have emerged as a response to a perceived crisis "- namely the fear that modernity will eradicate their faith and morality. Its roots in Christianity can be traced to the late 19th Century as a reaction against liberal movements of Biblical criticism and analysis. A 1909 publication The Fundamentals proposed five required beliefs for conservative Christians; they are listed above under "Evangelicals", items 1 to 5 above. The term has three additional meanings in general usage that cause great confusion:
- a "snarl" word, used by some non-Fundamentalists to imply intolerance, bigotry, lack of flexibility and an anti-intellectual bias.
- when applied by the Western media to Muslims , it often means "anti-American".
- when used by conservative Muslims themselves, it refers to a person who strictly follows the teachings of Mohammed, and who promotes the concept of theocratic government.
English glossary of religious terms. Английский глоссарий религиозных терминов. 2012