Meaning of -EST in English

-EST

I. ə̇st adjective suffix or adverb suffix

Etymology: Middle English, from Old English -st, -est, -ost; akin to superlative suffixes Old High German -isto, -ōsto (in adjectives), -ist, -ōst (in adverbs), Old Norse -str, -astr (in adjectives), -st, -ast (in adverbs), Gothic -ists, -osts (in adjectives), -ist (in adverbs), Greek -istos (in adjectives), Sanskrit -iṣṭha (in adjectives); probably from the suffix represented by English -er (I) + the suffix represented by English -ed (I)

— used to form the superlative degree of adjectives and adverbs of one syllable

fatt est

lat est

new est

of certain adjectives and adverbs of two syllables

lucki est

often est

remot est

simpl est

and less often of longer ones

beggarli est

— often attached to words (as participles in adjectival use) that rarely if ever show a corresponding comparative formation in -er

cussed est

fighting est

lying est

— regularly accompanied by coalescence with final e of the base word, change of final postconsonantal y of the base word to i, or doubling of the final consonant of the base word immediately after a short stressed vowel; compare most II

II. ə̇st suffix

or -st st, after a vȯiced consonant zt or st

Etymology: Middle English, from Old English -est, -ast, -st, 2d singular present endings of various classes of verbs (from earlier -es, -as, -s + -t, assimilated form of the 2d person pron. thū thou) & -est (from earlier -es + -t ), 2d singular past ending of weak verbs; akin to Old High German -ist, -ōst, -ēst (from earlier -is, -ōs, -ēs + -t, from thū, thu thou), 2d singular present endings, -ōst (from earlier -ōs + -t ), 2d singular past ending of weak verbs, Gothic -is, -os, -ais, 2d singular present endings, -es, 2d singular past ending of weak verbs, Old Norse -r, -ar, -ir, 2d singular present endings, -ir, 2d singular past ending of weak verbs, Latin & Greek -s (preceded by various thematic vowels), 2d singular present ending, Sanskrit -si

— used to form the archaic second person singular indicative of English verbs (with thou )

gett est

did st

carri est

failed st

can st

Webster's New International English Dictionary.      Новый международный словарь английского языка Webster.