Meaning of AUTOMOBILE in English
Four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation, commonly propelled by an internal combustion engine using a volatile fuel.
The modern automobile consists of about 14,000 parts, divided into several structural and mechanical systems. These include the steel body, containing the passenger and storage space, which sits on the chassis or steel frame; the internal combustion gasoline engine, which powers the car by means of a transmission ; the steering and braking systems, which control the car's motion; and the electrical system, which includes a battery , alternator , and other devices. Subsystems involve fuel, exhaust, lubrication, cooling, suspension , and tires . Though experimental vehicles were built in the 18th and mid-19th century, not until the 1880s did Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz in Germany begin separately to manufacture cars commercially. In the U.S., James and William Packard and Ransom Olds were among the first auto manufacturers, and by 1898 there were 50 U.S. manufacturers. Some early cars operated by steam engine, such as those made from c. 1902 by Francis E. and Freelan O. Stanley . The internal combustion engine was used by Henry Ford when he introduced the Model T in 1908; Ford would soon revolutionize the industry with his use of the assembly line . In the 1930s European manufacturers began to make small, affordable cars such as the Volkswagen. In the 1950s and '60s, U.S. automakers produced larger, more luxurious cars with more automatic features. In the 1970s and '80s Japanese manufacturers exported their small, reliable, fuel-efficient cars worldwide, and their increasing popularity spurred U.S. automakers to produce similar models. See also axle , brake , bus , carburetor , electric automobile , fuel injection , motorcycle , truck .
Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Краткая энциклопедия Британика. 2012