Meaning of SURREALISM in English
Movement in the visual arts and literature that flourished in Europe between World Wars I and II. Surrealism grew principally out of the earlier Dada movement, which before World War I produced works of anti-art that deliberately defied reason; Surrealism developed in reaction against the "rationalism" that had led to World War I. The movement was founded in 1924 by André Breton as a means of joining dream and fantasy to everyday reality to form "an absolute reality, a surreality.
" Drawing on the theories of Sigmund Freud , he concluded that the unconscious was the wellspring of the imagination. Breton was a poet, but Surrealism's major achievements were in painting. Some artists practiced organic, emblematic, or absolute Surrealism, expressing the unconscious through suggestive yet indefinite biomorphic images (e.g., Jean Arp , Max Ernst , André Masson , Joan Miró ). Others created realistically painted images, removed from their context and reassembled within a paradoxical or shocking framework ( Salvador Dalí , René Magritte ). With its emphasis on content and free form, Surrealism provided a major alternative to the contemporary, highly formalistic Cubist movement and was largely responsible for perpetuating in modern painting the traditional emphasis on content.
Britannica English dictionary. Английский словарь Британика. 2012