Meaning of BREMEN in English
in full Freie Hansestadt Bremen (German: Free Hanseatic City-State of Bremen), Gemeinde (commune), Kreisfrei Stadt (county town), and capital of the Land (state) of Bremen, which comprises the two cities of Bremen and Bremerhaven, Germany. It is situated on the Weser River some 43 miles (70 km) from the North Sea, is one of the largest ports of Germany, and is one of the more dynamic of that nation's cities. Bremen is also one of the major industrial cities of northern Europe. Together with the port of Bremerhaven, situated 37 miles (60 km) to the north, it forms the smallest (in area and population) of the Lnder of Germany but is of vital economic significance. This article describes both the Land and the city that dominates it. The earliest settlement (called Breme or Bremum) on the right bank of the river was favoured by an advantageous position at the junction of important early trading routes from the Rhine River to the Elbe and from the North Sea to southern Germany. In 787 Charlemagne, the Western (Holy Roman) emperor, established the diocese of Bremen (to become an archbishopric in 845), which became the base for missionary activity covering the whole of northern Europe. The market rightsincluding customs and coinagethat were conferred on Bremen in 965 brought increased mercantile activity, and the young city soon became one of the commanding religious and economic centres of northern Germany, especially after entering the Hanseatic Leaguean economic and political association of the rising urban mercantile classin 1358. The imperial free city, as Bremen became known, occupying a strongly fortified position on either side of the Weser, defended its independence in the Thirty Years' War (161848) and later repelled both Swedish and Hanoverian aggression. As an autonomous republicthe oldest in Germanyit joined the German Confederation in 1815 and the reconstituted German Empire in 1871. It attained increasing economic importance as a leader in international trade and world shipping by entering the German customs union (Zollverein) in 1888, through expanding its port facilities, and by developing manufacturing industry. The city of the late 20th century is an interesting amalgam of medieval and modern architecture. The outstanding features in the Altstadt, or Old Town, in the restored heart of the city, are the famous marketplace with its 11th-century cathedral; the Gothic Town Hall with its Renaissance facade; the statue of Roland (1404), symbolizing market rights and imperial jurisdiction; a picturesque row of old, gabled houses; and the modern-style Parliament. Districts heavily bombed in World War II (69 percent of the houses were destroyed) have since been rebuilt, allowing for growing traffic and extensive public parks. About 3 miles from the city centre, the modern satellite town of Neue Vahr, built between 1957 and 1962, is one of a ring of peripheral settlements that have coalesced with the expanding and dynamic city. Additional reading G.O.A. Bessell, Bremen: Geschichte einer deutschen Stadt, 3rd ed. (1955), a general review of the history of the city; Freie Hansestadt Bremen: Werden, Vergehen und Wiederaufbau (1947), an atlas of views and maps of the city (15671945), with descriptive text; Bremen, Senator fr Wirtschaft und Aussenhandel, Bremen/Bremerhaven: Industrie am Strom (1969), a discussion of the individual branches of industry and their development within the Bremen economy, Die Wirtschaftsstruktur Bremens, 2nd ed. (1969), a general review of the Bremen economy; G. Deissmann (ed.), Wachsende Stdte an der Unterweser, 2nd ed. (1965), a general review of the economy of the cities of Bremen and Bremerhaven and their individual development, with valuable statistics and maps of the ports; Zuhause in Bremen (1970), a guide through Bremen with particular reference to cultural life and recreation, with detailed statistics and an extensive bibliography.
Britannica English vocabulary. Английский словарь Британика. 2012