Meaning of CH'UNG-CHEN in English

born Feb. 6, 1611, Peking, China died April 25, 1644, Peking Pinyin Chongzhen (reign name, or nien-hao), personal name (hsing ming) Chu Yu-chien, posthumous name (shih) Chuang-lieh-min, temple name (miao-hao) (ming) Ssu-tsung, or (ming) I-tsung 16th and last emperor of the Ming dynasty (13681644). Ch'ung-chen ascended the throne at the age of 16 on the death of his brother, T'ien-chi (reigned 162027), and tried to revive the deteriorating Ming government. He banished Wei Chung-hsien, the powerful eunuch who had dominated his brother's reign, and he eliminated some of the more corrupt officials. He could not, however, quell partisan strife within the bureaucracy and the army. The imperial generals were frequently more interested in quarreling with one another than in putting down rebellions or halting the incursions of the Manchu tribes on the northeast border of the empire. The corruption of previous reigns had so depleted the imperial treasuries that Ch'ung-chen was unable to supply his armies, and his troops frequently joined enemy forces. In desperation, Ch'ung-chen demanded more taxes and conscripts from the already overly oppressed population. Unable to bear this extra burden, the people joined the rebel bands in increasing numbers. Finally, in 1644 several of Ch'ung-chen's eunuch generals betrayed him, and Li Tzu-ch'eng (1605?45), one of the rebel leaders, captured the capital city, Peking. As Li's forces approached the city, the emperor struck a bell, signaling his ministers to appear for a conference. When no one came, he climbed to the top of Coal Hill, next to his palace, and hanged himself.

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