Meaning of COLOGNE in English

also called Eau De Cologne, in perfumery, scented solution usually consisting of alcohol and about 26 percent perfume concentrate. Originally, eau de cologne was a mixture of citrus oils from such fruits as lemons and oranges, combined with such substances as lavender and neroli (orange-flower oil); toilet waters were less-concentrated forms of other types of perfume. The two terms, cologne and toilet water, however, have come to be used interchangeably. Additional reading General Willehad Paul Eckert, Kln: Stadt am Rhein zwischen Tradition und Fortschritt, 3rd rev. ed. (1977); Kurt Kayser and Theodor Kraus (eds.), Kln und die Rheinlande (1961); J. Klersch, Volkstum und Volksleben in Kln, 3 vol. (196569), a sociological study; Erhard Schleiter and Rudolf Barten, III, Kln/Cologne (1982), a largely photographic study; and Helmut Signon, Getting to Know Cologne (1977). History Hermann Kellenbenz and Klara Van Eyll (eds.), Zwei Jahrtausende Klner Wirtschaft, 2 vol. (1975), a massive study of Cologne's economic history; Hermann Schmitz, Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (1956); Leonard Ennen and Gottfried Eckertz (eds.), Quellen zur Geschichte der Stadt Kln, 6 vol. (186079, reprinted 1970); Kln, das Reich und Europa (1971), a collection of essays on Cologne's involvement in politics, law, and business during the Middle Ages; Arnold Stelzmann, Illustrierte Geschichte der Stadt Kln, 8th rev. ed. (1978), an illustrated history; and Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, The Cologne Communist Trial, trans. from the German and ed. by Rodney Livingstone (1971). Art and architecture Paul Clemen, Fritz Witte, and Heinrich Neu (eds.), Der Dom zu Kln, 2nd enlarged ed. (1938, reprinted 1980); Ludwig Arntz, Heinrich Neu, Hans Vogts (eds.), Die Ehemaligen Kirchen, Klster, Hospitler und Schulbauten der Stadt Kln (1937, reprinted 1980); Hans Vogts (ed.), Die profanen Denkmler der Stadt Kln (1930, reprinted 1980), and other titles in the series Die Kunstdenkmler der Stadt Kln, ed. by Paul Clemen, on the artistic aspects of various monuments in Cologne; Hiltrud Kier (ed.), Kln: Kunstfhrer (1980); Werner Schfke, Klns romanische Kirchen: Architektur, Ausstattung, Geschichte (1984); Hans Vogts, Kln im Spiegel seiner Kunst (1950); Albert Verbeek, Klner Kirchen, 2nd rev. ed. (1969), a history of the art of church building in Cologne; W.D. Robson-Scott, The Literary Background of the Gothic Revival in Germany (1965), on aspects of the cathedral; and Jakob Schlafke, The Cathedral of Cologne (1980; originally published in German, 1980), a photographic study. Margaret Kohl Hugo Stehkmper Christopher Angus McIntosh

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