Meaning of ERBIUM in English

(Er), chemical element, rare-earth metal of transition Group IIIb of the periodic table. Erbium is a grayish silver element that also occurs as a series of pink compounds. It had limited commercial uses until the age of fibre-optic telecommunications, when it became an important constituent of the signal repeaters in long-distance telephone cables. The element was discovered (1843) as an oxide by Carl Gustaf Mosander, who originally called it terbia. In the confusion arising from the similarity in the properties of the rare-earth elements, the names of two, terbium and erbium, became interchanged (c. 1860). The element occurs in many rare-earth minerals, among the more important being xenotime and euxenite. Erbium occurs also in the products of nuclear fission. Commercial purification is accomplished by ion-exchange methods. The metal itself has been prepared by thermoreduction of the anhydrous fluoride with calcium. It is slowly oxidized by oxygen and water. At low temperatures the element is antiferromagnetic, and at very low temperatures, ferromagnetic and superconductive. Natural erbium is a mixture of six stable isotopes: erbium-162 (0.136 percent), erbium-164 (1.56 percent), erbium-166 (33.41 percent), erbium-167 (22.94 percent), erbium-168 (27.07 percent), and erbium-170 (14.88 percent). Erbium behaves as a typical trivalent rare-earth element, forming compounds such as the pink oxide Er2O3. The Er3+ ion is pink in solution and is strongly paramagnetic because of the presence of unpaired electrons. In addition, when raised to a high energy state by absorption of infrared light, the Er3+ ion emits photons at wavelengths of 1.55 micrometresone of the wavelengths commonly employed in fibre-optic signal transmission. For this reason, erbium-doped fibre amplifiers are used to boost the power of light signals transmitted through long-distance optical cables. atomic number 68 atomic weight 167.26 melting point 1,529 C boiling point 2,862 C specific gravity 9.066 (25 C) valence 3 electronic config. 2-8-18-30-8-2 or (Xe)4f 125d06s2

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