born July 2, 1714, Erasbach, near Berching, Upper Palatinate, Bavaria died Nov. 15, 1787, Vienna, Austria Ritter (knight) Von Gluck German classical composer, best known for his operas, including Orfeo ed Eurydice (1762), Alceste (1767), Paride ed Elena (1770), Iphignie en Aulide (1774), the French version of Orfeo (1774), and Iphignie en Tauride (1779). He was knighted in 1756. Additional reading Catalog of printed works and bibliography. Alfred Wotquenne, Thematisches Verzeichnis der Werke von Chr. W.v. Gluck, 17141787 (1904); and Ergnzungen und Nachtrge, ed. by Josef Liebeskind (1911); C.W. Hopkinson, A Bibliography of the Printed Works of C.W. von Gluck, 17141787, 2nd rev. ed. (1967); Stephan Wortsmann, Die deutsche Gluck-Literatur (1914); A.A. Abert, Gluck, Christoph Willibald, in Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, vol. 5, col. 376380 (1956; Collected Correspondence and Papers, 196263). Editions. Smtliche Werke (1951); Denkmler der Tonkunst in Bayern, vol. 14/2, Le nozze d'Ercole e d'Ebe, ed. by Hermann Abert (1914); Denkmler der Tonkunst in sterreich: vol. 21/44a, Orfeo ed Euridice, ed. by Hermann Abert (1914); vol. 30/60, Le festin de pierre (Don Juan), ed. by Robert Haas (1923); and vol. 44/82, L'innocenza giustificata, ed. by Alfred Einstein (1937); Iphignie en Aulide, Orphe et Euridice, Alceste, Armide, Iphignie en Tauride, Echo et Narcisse, ed. by F. Pelletan et al. (since 1873); The Collected Correspondence and Papers of Christoph W. Gluck, ed. by Hedwig and E.H. Mueller von Asow (1962), review with corrections and additions by Klaus Hortschansky in Die Musikforschung, 17:469471 (1965). Biographies and studies. Anton Schmid, Christoph Willibald Ritter von Gluck (1854), the first comprehensive biography (in German); Martin Cooper, Gluck (1935), a biographical study based on modern research; Alfred Einstein, Gluck: Sein Leben, seine Werke (1936), Gluck seen as the reformer of Italian opera and French opera in Paris; Rudolf Gerber, Christoph Willibald Gluck, 2nd ed. (1950), an authentic and comprehensive work (in German); Anna A. Abert, Christoph Willibald Gluck (1959), a popular, reliable account (in German); Patricia Howard, Gluck and the Birth of Modern Opera (1963); Daniel Heartz, From Garrick to Gluck: The Reform of Theatre and Opera in the Mid-Eighteenth Century, Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association, pp. 111127 (1968); Gerhard Croll, Gluckforschung und Gluck-Gesamtausgabe, in Musik und Verlag: Karl Vtterle zum 65. Geburtstag am 12 April 1968, pp. 192196 (1968). Major Works: Operas. Artaserse (1741); Sofonisba (or Siface) and Ipermestra (both 1744); Le nozze d'Ercole e d'Ebe (1747); Semiramide riconosciuta (1748); Ezio (1750, second version 1763); La clemenza di Tito (1752); Orfeo ed Euridice (1762); Alceste (1767); Paride ed Elena (1770); Iphignie en Aulide (1774); Orphe et Eurydice (French version of Orfeo ed Euridice, 1774); Alceste (French version, 1776); Armide (1777); cho et Narcisse (1779); Iphignie en Tauride (1779); Iphigenrie auf Tauris (German version, 1781). Comic operas (opras comiques). L'le de Merlin (1758); L'Arbre enchant (1759, second version 1775); La Cythre assige (1759, second version 1775); Le Cadi dup (1761); La Rencontre imprvue or Die Pilgrime von Mekka (1764). Dramatic ballets and pantomimes. Don Juan ou le festin de pierre (1761); Semiramide (1765); Iphigeni (1765); Achille (1770?). Odes. Klopstocks Oden und Lieder (seven odes for voice and piano with texts by Klopstock, composed c. 1770). Church music. De profundis (after 1785?). Instrumental music. Six trio sonatas; about 15 sinfonies (overtures).

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