Meaning of ITALY in English

officially ItalianRepublic, Italian Italia, or Repubblica Italiana, mountainous country of south-central Europe, extending southeastward into the Mediterranean Sea and including the large islands of Sicily and Sardinia. Its neighbours to the north are France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia. The Adriatic Sea on the east separates it from the Balkans, and the Mediterranean Sea on the south separates it from North Africa. The capital is Rome. Area 116,341 square miles (301,323 square km). Pop. (1991) 57,103,833; (1997 est.) 57,510,000. Florence Cathedral, Italy, constructed between 1296 and 1436 (dome by Filippo Brunelleschi, officially Italian Republic, Italian Italia or Repubblica Italiana country of south-central Europe, occupying a peninsula that juts deep into the Mediterranean Sea. It has a shape that has been likened frequently to a high-heeled boot about to prod its triangular subject island of Sicily. Another important island, Sardinia, lies some 160 miles (260 kilometres) west of Italy's shin. The magnificent mountain barrier of the Alps forms a northern boundary, which historically has hindered marauders less than might be supposed; these mountains separate Italy from France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia and extend all the way down the Italian peninsula as a less elevated chain, the Apennines. Areas of plain, which are practically limited to the great northern triangle of the Po Valley, cover a mere 21 percent of the total national area of 116,000 square miles (301,000 square kilometres); 40 percent is hilly and 39 percent mountainous, providing variations to the generally temperate climate. The mountainous landscape of Italy has long influenced political and economic developments on the peninsula by encouraging the creation of numerous independent states and by permitting in many regions only a meagre agriculture, providing grain sufficient only for a subsistence economy. Increased cultivation has caused deforestation. Since World War II, increasing numbers of Italians have abandoned the countryside for the rapidly industrializing cities, often creating severe dislocations in traditional ways of life. The Italian economy, now ranked high in the world, blends areas as diverse as the industrial triangle, formed by Milan, Turin, and Genoa, dating from about 1900, and the backward regions of the south and the islands, which are, however, being developed, mostly with aid from the state and the European Union. Agriculture, which operates in often difficult natural and economic conditions, contributes about 4 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP), industry about 30 percent, and public and private services more than 50 percent. Sufficient wheat is grown for the population, and vegetables, fruit, grapes, and olives are cultivated in suitable districts. Cattle raising, however, is less advanced; meat and dairy produce is imported. Italian industry includes every type of production. Although mineral resources are scarce, imported raw materials since World War II have boosted the production of iron and steel, other metallurgy, and construction. The chemical industry also flourishes, and textiles constitute one of Italy's largest industries. Services, particularly tourism, are very important, and efforts have been made to provide comprehensive networks of autostrade (express highways). The peninsula has a proud tradition dating from antiquity. From its unification in the second half of the 19th century until 1946, Italy was a monarchy. It then became a parliamentary republic, operating under the constitution of 1948. The republic is subdivided into regioni, province, and comuni (communes); these local bodies, especially the regions, which differ widely in economic development, enjoy a certain autonomy. A similar diversity characterizes political life. From the end of World War II to the early 1990s, Italy had a multiparty system dominated by two large partiesthe Christian Democratic Party (Partito della Democrazia Cristiana; DC) and the Italian Communist Party (Partito Comunista Italiano; PCI)and a number of small but influential parties. The DC was the dominant governing party, in various alliances with the smaller parties of the centre and left. The Italian party system underwent a radical transformation in the early 1990s as a result of both international and national events. In 1991 the Communist Party became the Democratic Party of the Left (Partito Democratico della Sinistra; PDS). The DC disappeared altogether. One of its successors was the much weaker Italian Popular Party (Partito Popolare Italiano; PPI). The main result of these changes was the collapse of the political centre and a right-left polarization of the party spectrum. Workers' unions have been an important part of national life. They are grounded in various confederations, principally the Italian General Confederation of Labour (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro, or CGIL), controlled in effect by the PDS. Employers' groups and the great state bureaucracies also form important pressure groups in this often sharply polarized society. Italy is part of the European Union and the Council of Europe and belongs to many other international organizations. With its strategic geographic position on the southern flank of Europe, Italy has since World War II played a fairly important role in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Libero Lenti Russell L. King This article treats the physical and human geography of Italy. For discussion of the major cities of Italy, see the articles Florence, Milan, Naples, Rome, and Venice. For its history, see ancient Italic people; ancient Rome; and Italy, history of. Latin Italia, in Roman antiquity, the Italian Peninsula from the Apennines in the north to the boot in the south. In 42 BC Cisalpine Gaul, north of the Apennines, was added; and in the late 3rd century AD Italy came to include the islands of Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia, as well as Raetia and part of Pannonia to the north. The first major power in the peninsula was the Etruscans. From Etruria, Etruscan power spread northward to the Po River valley and southward to Campania, but it later collapsed to Etruria itself. Where the Etruscans failed, the people of Rome gradually succeeded in the task of unifying the various Italian peoples into a political whole. By 264 BC all Italy south of Cisalpine Gaul was united under the leadership of Rome in a confederacy; its members were either incorporated in or allied with the Roman state. The status of the allies gradually changed until after the Italian, or Social, War (i.e., the war of the socii, or allies) of 90 BC, when Roman citizenship was extended to all Italy. But political unification was achieved more quickly than was sentimental unity: Romans and Italici did not immediately coalesce into a nation. Cicero might talk of tota Italia, but Italy was not finally united in spirit until the time of Augustus, and Romanization was still slower in superseding local differences. In the meantime Cisalpine Gaul, which had received Roman citizenship in stages, was incorporated into Italy in 42 BC. For administrative purposes the emperor Augustus divided Italy into 11 regions: (1) Latium and Campania, including the Volsci, Hernici, Aurunci, and Picentini, from the mouth of the Tiber to that of the Silarus (Sele) River, (2) Apulia and Calabria, including the Hirpini (the heel of Italy), (3) Lucania and Bruttium, bounded on the west coast by the Silarus, on the east by the Bradanus (Bradano) River (the toe of Italy), (4) Samnium, including the Samnites, Frentani, Marrucini, Marsi, Paeligni, Aequiculi, Vestini, and Sabini, bounded on the south by the Tifernus (Biferno), on the north probably by the Matrinus (Piomba) River, (5) Picenum, between the Aesis (Esino) and Matrinus rivers, (6) Umbria, including the ager Gallicus, bounded by the upper Tiber, Crustumius (Conca), and Aesis rivers, (7) Etruria, bounded by the Macra (Magra) and Tiber rivers, (8) Gallia Cispadana, limited by the Po River, from Placentia (Piacenza) to its mouth, and by the Crustumius, which was substituted for the Rubicon, (9) Liguria, bounded by the Varus (Var), Po, and Macra, (10) Venetia and Istria, including the Cenomani around Lake Garda in the west, and (11) Gallia Transpadana, bounded by the Alps, the Po River, and the Addua (Adda) River. This arrangement was retained almost unchanged until the emperor Diocletian's reorganization (c. AD 290300), when the diocese of Italy included the islands of Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia, as well as Raetia and part of Pannonia to the north. In practice this diocese was divided into two areas, each under a vicarius: that of Italy with the four northern regions and that of Rome with the seven southern areas and the islands. Additional reading Geography General works Comprehensive descriptions of many geographic aspects of the country are found in J.P. Cole, Italy (1964); Donald Smith Walker, A Geography of Italy, 2nd ed. (1967); Peter Nichols, Italia, Italia (1973); Mario Pinna and Domenico Ruocco (eds.), Italy: A Geographical Survey (1980); and Jacques Bthemont and Jean Pelletier, Italy: A Geographical Introduction (1983; originally published in French, 1979). Rinn S. Shinn (ed.), Italy: A Country Study, 2nd ed. (1987), is a comprehensive survey of both the geography and history of the country. The people National, social, and demographic characteristics of the country, with a look at regional differences, are discussed in David Willey, Italians (1984); Luigi Barzini, The Italians (1964, reprinted 1977); William Murray, The Last Italian: Portrait of a People (1991); David I. Kertzer and Richard P. Saller (eds.), The Family in Italy from Antiquity to the Present (1991); Rudolph M. Bell, Fate and Honor, Family and Village: Demographic and Cultural Change in Rural Italy Since 1800 (1979); Robert E. Dickinson, The Population Problem in Southern Italy: An Essay in Social Geography (1955, reprinted 1976); and Ann Cornelisen, Strangers and Pilgrims: The Last Italian Migration (also published as Flight from Torregreca: Strangers and Pilgrims, 1980), which introduces a discussion of economic issues. The economy Broad surveys are offered in Shepard B. Clough, The Economic History of Modern Italy (1964); Peter Groeneweger and Joseph Halevi (eds.), Italian Economics Past and Present (1983); Russell King, Italy (1987); Kevin Allen and Andrew Stevenson, An Introduction to the Italian Economy (1974); Gisle Podbielski, Italy: Development and Crisis in the Post-War Economy (1974); Vera Lutz, Italy: A Study in Economic Development (1962, reprinted 1975); John Earle, Italy in the 1970s (1975); and Donald C. Templeman, The Italian Economy (1981). Special studies include Russell King, The Industrial Geography of Italy (1985); and Edward Goodman, Julia Bamford, and Peter Saynor (eds.), Small Firms and Industrial Districts in Italy (1989), both of these analyzing the location of industries; Raffaella Y. Nanetti, Growth and Territorial Policies: The Italian Model of Social Capitalism (1988), focusing on regional disparities and the role of local government in economic development; Alan B. Mountjoy, The Mezzogiorno, 2nd ed. (1982), briefly reviewing economic conditions in southern Italy; Russell King, Land Reform, the Italian Experience (1973); Pino Arlacchi, Mafia, Peasants, and Great Estates: Society in Traditional Calabria (1983; originally published in Italian, 1980), and Mafia Business: The Mafia Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism (1986; originally published in Italian, 1983); Edith Kurzweil, Italian Entrepreneurs: Rearguard of Progress (1983); and Peter Lange and Marino Regini (eds.), State, Market, and Social Regulation: New Perspectives on Italy (1989; originally published in Italian, 1987). Russell L. King Administration and social conditions Comprehensive historical introductions to political institutions and processes are presented in Norman Kogan, A Political History of Italy: The Postwar Years, new ed. (1983); Paul Ginsborg, A History of Contemporary Italy: Society and Politics, 19431988 (1990); Frederic Spotts and Theodor Wieser, Italy: A Difficult Democracy (1986); and Joseph LaPalombara, Democracy, Italian Style (1987). Particular aspects of the system are discussed in Franco Damaso Marengo, Rules of the Italian Political Game (1981); and John Fraser, Italy: Society in Crisis, Society in Transformation (1981). Useful insights into the machinations of the power system are provided in Alan Friedman, Agnelli and the Network of Italian Power (1988). Robert C. Fried, The Italian Prefects: A Study in Administrative Politics (1963), examines local governmental structures. The dynamics of various political forces are the subject of Paolo Farneti, The Italian Party System, 19451980 (1985); Geoffrey Pridham, The Nature of the Italian Party System (1981); Alan S. Zuckerman, The Politics of Faction: Christian Democratic Rule in Italy (1979); Donald Sassoon, The Strategy of the Italian Communist Party: From the Resistance to the Historic Compromise (1981); Grant Amyot, The Italian Communist Party: The Crisis of the Popular Front Strategy (1981); Sidney Tarrow, Peasant Communism in Southern Italy (1967); and Judith Chubb, Patronage, Power, and Poverty in Southern Italy: A Tale of Two Cities (1982). A full analysis of the political, social, and economic crisis of the 1970s and the radical transformations that resulted from it is found in Sidney Tarrow, Democracy and Disorder: Protest and Politics in Italy, 19651975 (1989). The beginning of Italy's European integration is treated in F. Roy Williams, Italy Chooses Europe (1971). Giuseppe Di Palma Cultural life Anna Laura Lepschy and Giulio Lepschy, The Italian Language Today, 2nd ed. (1988), offers a survey of modern Italian and its dialects. A well-illustrated discussion of popular culture and social customs, with a look at rustic decoration and ornament, is found in Catherine Sabino, Italian Country (1988). David Forgacs, Italian Culture in the Industrial Era, 18801980: Cultural Industries, Politics, and the Public (1990), is a history of popular culture and politico-cultural dynamics. John Julius Norwich (ed.), The Italians: History, Art, and the Genius of a People (also published as The Italian World, 1983), surveys developments from Roman times to the 20th century. James Hall, A History of Ideas and Images in Italian Art (1983), traces the inspiration behind Italian art from Etruscan times. Other facets of cultural life are discussed in Doreen Yarwood, The Architecture of Italy (1970); J.H. Whitfield, A Short History of Italian Literature, 2nd ed. (1980); Michael Caesar and Peter Hainsworth (eds.), Writers & Society in Contemporary Italy (1984); Robin Buss, Italian Films (1989); and Peter Bondanella, Italian Cinema: From Neorealism to the Present, new ed. (1990). Russell L. King Melanie F. Knights History General works Extensive coverage of Italian history is provided in Ruggiero Romano and Corrado Vivanti (eds.), Storia d'Italia, 6 vol. in 11 (197276), and Storia d'Italia: Annali, 9 vol. in 10 (197886), both published by Einaudi and divided by topics and periods; and Storia d'Italia (1979 ), published by UTET and divided by political states. The works in the series are syntheses of history with detailed bibliographies of primary and secondary sources. A comprehensive English-language survey is Reinhold Schumann, Italy in the Last Fifteen Hundred Years: A Concise History, 2nd ed. (1992). Italy in the early Middle Ages Comprehensive discussions of medieval Italy are provided in the first three volumes of The Cambridge Medieval History: vol. 1, The Christian Roman Empire and the Foundation of the Teutonic Kingdoms, 2nd ed. (1924, reprinted 1967), vol. 2, The Rise of the Saracens and the Foundation of the Western Empire (1913, reprinted 1967), and vol. 3, Germany and the Western Empire (1922, reprinted 1964). Specific periods are treated in the following: on the period to the year 774, Paolo Delogu, Andr Guillou, and Gherardo Ortalli, Longobardi e bizantini (1980); on the 9th- and 10th-century north, Vito Fumagalli, Il Regno italico (1978); and, on the south, Andr Guillou et al., Il Mezzogiorno dai bizantini a Federico II (1983). Giovanni Tabacco, The Struggle for Power in Medieval Italy: Structures of Political Rule (1989; originally published in Italian, 1979), is a major survey of sociopolitical history. Also of interest is Chris Wickham, Early Medieval Italy: Central Power and Local Society, 4001000 (1981).Specific political and social topics of early periods are studied in A.H.M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire, 284602: A Social, Economic, and Administrative Survey, 2 vol. (1964, reprinted 1986); T.S. Brown, Gentlemen and Officers: Imperial Administration and Aristocratic Power in Byzantine Italy, A.D. 554800 (1984); Thomas F.X. Noble, The Republic of St. Peter: The Birth of the Papal State, 680825 (1984); Guglielmo Cavallo et al., I bizantini in Italia (1982); Gian Piero Bognetti, L'et longobarda, 4 vol. (196668); Jules Gay, L'Italie mridionale et l'empire byzantin depuis l'avnement de Basile Ier jusqu' la prise de Bari par les Normands, 8671071 (1904, reissued in 2 vol., 1960); Barbara M. Kreutz, Before the Normans: Southern Italy in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries (1991); Eduard Hlawitschka, Franken, Alemannen, Bayern, und Burgunder in Oberitalien, 774962: zum Verstndnis der frnkischen Knigsherrschaft in Italien (1960); Gina Fasoli, I re d'Italia, 888962 (1949); Vito Fumagalli, Terra e societ nell'Italia padana: i secoli IX e X (1976); and several articles in the collective work Structures fodales et fodalisme dans l'Occident mditerranen: Xe-XIIIe sicles (1980). Aldo A. Settia, Castelli e villaggi nell'Italia padana: popolamento, potere, e sicurezza fra IX e XIII secolo (1984), discusses Berengar's castles and political fragmentation. Giovanni Tabacco, I liberi del re nell'Italia carolingia e postcarolingia (1966), examines the changing status of freemen.Important regional studies include Cinzio Violante, La societ milanese nell'et precomunale, 3rd ed. (1981); Gabriella Rossetti (gabriella Rossetti Pepe), Societ e istituzioni nel contado lombardo durante il Medioevo: Cologno Monzese, secoli VIIIX (1968); Hagen Keller, Adelsherrschaft und stdtische Gesellschaft in Oberitalien, 9. bis 12. Jahrhundert (1979); Hansmartin Schwarzmaier, Lucca und das Reich bis zum Ende des 11. Jahrhunderts: Studien zur Sozialstruktur einer Herzogstadt in der Toskana (1972); Pierre Toubert, Les Structures du Latium mdival: le Latium mridional et la Sabine du IXe sicle la fin du XIIe sicle, 2 vol. (1973); Chris Wickham, The Mountains and the City: The Tuscan Appennines in the Early Middle Ages (1988); and Paolo Delogu, Mito di una citt meridionale: Salerno, secoli VIIIXI (1977). Socioeconomic analyses include Gino Luzzatto, An Economic History of Italy: From the Fall of the Roman Empire to the Beginning of the Sixteenth Century (1961; originally published in Italian, 1949); Bruno Andreolli and Massimo Montanari, L'azienda curtense in Italia: propriet della terra e lavoro contadino nei secoli VIIIXI (1983); Massimo Montanari, L'alimentazione contadina nell'alto Medioevo (1979); Vito Fumagalli, Coloni e signori nell'Italia settentrionale, secoli VIXI (1978); Bryan Ward-Perkins, From Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages: Urban Public Building in Northern and Central Italy, AD 300850 (1984); Andrea Castagnetti, L'organizzazione del territorio rurale nel Medioevo: circoscrizioni ecclesiastiche e civili nella Langobardia e nella Romania, 2nd ed. (1982); and appropriate articles in Richard Hodges and Brian Hobley (eds.), The Rebirth of Towns in the West, AD 7001050 (1988). The art of this period is examined by Richard Krautheimer, Rome, Profile of a City, 3121308 (1980); Friedrich Wilhelm Deichmann, Ravenna, Hauptstadt des sptantiken Abendlandes, 2 vol. in 5 (196989); mile Bertaux, L'Art dans l'Italie mridionale (1904, reprinted in 3 vol., 1978), and a supplement with the same title ed. by Adriano Prandi, 3 vol. (1978); and Richard Hodges and John Mitchell (eds.), San Vincenzo al Volturno: The Archaeology, Art, and Territory of an Early Medieval Monastery (1985). Christopher John Wickham The High Middle Ages, 9621300 Works embracing the whole of the period include The Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 5, Contest of Empire and Papacy (1926, reprinted 1968); Giorgio Falco, The Holy Roman Republic: A Historic Profile of the Middle Ages, 2nd ed. (1964, reprinted 1980; originally published in Italian, 1942); J.K. Hyde, Society and Politics in Medieval Italy: The Evolution of the Civil Life, 10001350 (1973); Chiara Frugoni, A Distant City: Images of Urban Experience in the Medieval World (1991; originally published in Italian, 1983); and Gioacchino Volpe, Medio evo italiano, new ed. (1961). For the Ottonian period, useful texts are Robert Holtzmann, Geschichte der schsischen Kaiserzeit, 9001024, 6th ed. (1979); Roland Pauler, Das Regnum Italiae in ottonischer Zeit (1982); and Societ Di Studi Romagnoli, Renovatio imperii (1963), a collection of scholarly papers. The reform era is studied in Uta-Renate Blumenthal, The Investiture Controversy: Church and Monarchy from the Ninth to the Twelfth Century (1988; originally published in German, 1982); Augustin Fliche, La Rforme grgorienne, 3 vol. (192437, reprinted 1978); Cinzio Violante, La pataria milanese e la riforma ecclesiastica (1955); Ovidio Capitani, L'Italia medievale nei secoli di trapasso: la riforma della chiesa, 10121122 (1984); and in the work by Schwarzmaier cited in the previous paragraph. Politics of the 13th and 14th centuries are discussed in John Larner, Italy in the Age of Dante and Petrarch, 12161380 (1980); and in the work in English by Tabacco, cited in the section above. The role of medieval Italy in Mediterranean commerce is examined in David Herlihy, Robert S. Lopez, and Vsevolod Slessarev (eds.), Economy, Society, and Government in Medieval Italy (1969); David Abulafia, Italy, Sicily, and the Mediterranean, 11001400 (1987); and Gerald W. Day, Genoa's Response to Byzantium, 11551204: Commercial Expansion and Factionalism in a Medieval City (1988).Examinations of social and cultural life in the 12th and 13th centuries include David Abulafia, The Two Italies: Economic Relations Between the Norman Kingdom of Sicily and the Northern Communes (1977); Karl Bosl, Gesellschaftsgeschichte Italiens im Mittelalter (1982); Charles T. Davis, Dante's Italy, and Other Essays (1984); Alfred Haverkamp, Herrschaftsformen der Frhstaufer in Reichsitalien, 2 vol. (197071); Jacques Heers, Parties and Political Life in the Medieval West, trans. from French (1977); David Herlihy, Medieval and Renaissance Pistoia: The Social History of an Italian Town, 12001430 (1967); Philip Jones, Economia e societ nell'Italia medievale (1980); Lester K. Little, Liberty, Charity, Fraternity: Lay Religious Confraternities at Bergamo in the Age of the Commune (1988); Lauro Martines (ed.), Violence and Civil Disorder in Italian Cities, 12001500 (1972); Gilles Grard Meersseman, Ordo fraternitatis: confraternite e piet dei laici nel Medioevo, 3 vol. (1977); Johan Plesner, L'migration de la campagne la ville libre de Florence au XIIIe sicle (1934), a translation of a Danish manuscript; James M. Powell, Albertanus of Brescia: The Pursuit of Happiness in the Early Thirteenth Century (1992); Albert Rabil, Jr. (ed.), Renaissance Humanism: Foundations, Forms, and Legacy, vol. 1, Humanism in Italy (1988); and Toubert's work cited above in the paragraph on regional studies.Broad comparative analyses of the communes are presented in Gian Piero Bognetti, Studi sulle origini del comune rurale (1978); Renato Bordone, La societ urbana nell'Italia comunale, secoli XIXIV (1984); La citt nell'alto Medioevo (1959), a collection of writings; Comuni e signorie nell'Italia nordorientale e centrale, vol. 1, Giorgio Cracco et al., Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Toscana, and vol. 2, Girolamo Arnaldi et al., Lazio, Umbria e Marche, Lucca (1987); Renato Bordone and Jrg Jarnut (eds.), L'evoluzione delle citt italiane nell'XI secolo (1988); Lauro Martines, Power and Imagination: City-States in Renaissance Italy (1979, reissued 1988); Ferdinand Opll, Stadt und Reich im 12. Jahrhundert, 11251190 (1986); Yves Renouard, Les Villes d'Italie, de la fin du Xe sicle au dbut du XIVe sicle, new ed. edited by Philippe Braunstein, 2 vol. (1969); and Daniel Waley, The Italian City-Republics, 3rd ed. (1988).Histories of individual city-states include Mario Del Treppo and Alfonso Leone, Amalfi medioevale (1977); Alfred Hessel, Geschichte der Stadt Bologna von 1116 bis 1280 (1910, reissued 1965); Giovanni Treccani Degli Alfieri (ed.), Storia di Brescia, 5 vol. (196364); Robert Davidsohn, Geschichte von Florenz, 4 vol. in 7 (18961927, reissued 1969); Nicola Ottokar, Il comune di Firenze alla fine del dugento, 2nd rev. ed. (1962, reprinted 1974); Gaetano Salvemini, Magnati e popolani in Firenze dal 1280 al 1295, 2nd ed. (1966); George W. Dameron, Episcopal Power and Florentine Society, 10001320 (1991); Vito Vitale, Breviario della storia di Genova, 2 vol. (1955); Duane J. Osheim, An Italian Lordship: The Bishopric of Lucca in the Late Middle Ages (1977); Christine E. Meek, The Commune of Lucca Under Pisan Rule, 13421369 (1980); Violante's work on Milan, cited above among other regional studies; Daniel Waley, Medieval Orvieto (1952); Pietro Vaccari, Pavia nell'alto Medioevo e nell'et comunale: profilo storico (1956); Emilio Cristiani, Nobilt e popolo nel comune di Pisa dalle origini del podestariato alla signoria dei Donoratico (1962); Paolo Brezzi, Roma e l'impero medioevale, 7741252 (1947); Eugenio Dupr Theseider, Roma dal comune di popolo alla signoria pontificia, 12521377 (1952); Robert Brentano, Rome Before Avignon: A Social History of Thirteenth-Century Rome (1974, reissued 1991); Enrico Fiumi, Storia economica e sociale di San Gimignano (1961); Francesco Cognasso, Storia di Torino (1934, reissued 1974); Roberto Cessi, Storia della republica di Venezia, new ed., 2 vol. (1968, reissued in 1 vol., 1981); Frederick C. Lane, Venice, a Maritime Republic (1973); Giorgio Cracco, Societ e stato nel medioevo veneziano, secoli XIIXIV (1967); Istituto Per Gli Studi Storici Veronesi, Verona e il suo territorio, 7 vol. (19601988), a collective work; and Alberto Broglio and Lellia Cracco (eds.), Storia di Vicenza, 4 vol. (19871990).The Papal State is addressed in Peter Partner, The Lands of St. Peter: The Papal State in the Middle Ages and the Early Renaissance (1972); and Daniel Waley, The Papal State in the Thirteenth Century (1961). The history of the kingdom of Sicily is explored in Michele Amari, Storia dei Musulmani di Sicilia, 2nd ed., 3 vol. (193339, reprinted in 5 vol., 1986); Mario Caravale, Il regno normanno di Sicilia (1966); Ferdinand Chalandon, Histoire de la domination normande en Italie et en Sicile, 2 vol. (1907, reprinted 1969); H.E.J. Cowdrey, The Age of Abbot Desiderius: Montecassino, the Papacy, and the Normans in the Eleventh and Early Twelfth Centuries (1983); Josef Der, Papsttum und Normannen: Untersuchungen zu ihren lehnsrechtlichen und kirchenpolitischen Beziehungen (1972); Pietro De Leo, Mezzogiorno medioevale: istituzioni, societ, mentalit (1984); David C. Douglas, The Norman Achievement, 10501100 (1969), and The Norman Fate, 11001154 (1976); Norman Housley, The Italian Crusades: The Papal-Angevin Alliance and the Crusades Against Christian Lay Powers, 12541343 (1982); douard Jordan, Les Origines de la domination angevine en Italie (1909, reissued in 2 vol., 1960); Donald Matthew, The Norman Kingdom of Sicily (1992); L.-R. Mnager, Hommes et institutions de l'Italie normande (1981); Raffaello Morghen, L'et degli svevi in Italia (1974); The Normans in Sicily and Southern Italy (1977), a collection of three lectures; John Julius Norwich, The Other Conquest (also published as The Normans in the South, 10161130, 1967), and The Kingdom in the Sun, 11301194 (1970); Ernesto Pontieri, Ricerche sulla crisi della monarchia siciliana nel secolo XIII, 3rd rev. ed. (1958, reprinted 1965); Steven Runciman, The Sicilian Vespers: A History of the Mediterranean World in the Later Thirteenth Century (1958, reprinted 1982); Salvatore Tramontana, Mezzogiorno normanno e svevo (1972); and Helene Wieruszowski, Politics and Culture in Medieval Spain and Italy (1971). James M. Powell Italy in the 14th and 15th centuries General outlines of the period, together with references to important works in Italian and other languages, are to be found in the work by Larner cited in the section above; and in Denys Hay and John Law, Italy in the Age of the Renaissance, 13801530 (1989). Significant general aspects are covered in several works cited above: the book by Waley on the city-republics; and the work by Martines and the one edited by him; and in Michael Mallet, Mercenaries and Their Masters: Warfare in Renaissance Italy (1974). An excellent work of reference is J.R. Hale (ed.), A Concise Encyclopaedia of the Italian Renaissance (1981). Wallace K. Ferguson, The Renaissance in Historical Thought: Five Centuries of Interpretation (1948, reprinted 1981), is useful for periodization.Works that consider the social background of high culture are John Larner, Culture and Society in Italy, 12901420 (1971); Peter Burke, Tradition and Innovation in Renaissance Italy: A Sociological Approach, rev. ed. (1974); and George Holmes, Florence, Rome, and the Origins of the Renaissance (1986), and The Florentine Enlightenment, 140050 (1969, reissued 1992). Influential discussions of the subject are Denys Hay, The Italian Renaissance in Its Historical Background, 2nd ed. (1977); Hans Baron, The Crisis of the Early Italian Renaissance: Civic Humanism and Republican Liberty in an Age of Classicism and Tyranny, rev. ed. (1966); and Paul Oskar Kristeller, Renaissance Thought: The Classic, Scholastic, and Humanistic Strains (1961, reprinted 1980), and Renaissance Thought II: Papers on Humanism and the Arts (1961, reissued as Renaissance Thought and the Arts, 1980). The artist in society is discussed by Martin Wackernagel, The World of the Florentine Renaissance Artist (1938, reissued 1981; originally published in German, 1938); D.S. Chambers (compiler and trans.), Patrons and Artists in the Italian Renaissance (1970); and Bruce Cole, The Renaissance Artist at Work: From Pisano to Titian (1983).Most writings in English have concentrated on the republics. Valuable works on the great Tuscan city of Florence are Gene Brucker, Florentine Politics and Society, 13431378 (1962), and Renaissance Florence (1969, reprinted 1983); Gene Brucker (ed.), The Society of Renaissance Florence: A Documentary Study (1971); Francis William Kent, Household and Lineage in Renaissance Florence: The Family Life of the Capponi, Ginori, and Rucellai (1977); Richard C. Trexler, Public Life in Renaissance Florence (1980, reissued 1991); Richard A. Goldthwaite, The Building of Renaissance Florence: An Economic and Social History (1980, reissued 1990); John N. Najemy, Corporatism and Consensus in Florentine Electoral Politics, 12801400 (1982); and David Herlihy and Christiane Klapisch-Zuber, Tuscans and Their Families: A Study of the Florentine Catasto of 1427 (1985; originally published in French, 1978); and, on the great ruling family, Raymond De Roover, The Rise and Decline of the Medici Bank, 13971494 (1963); Nicolai Rubinstein, The Government of Florence Under the Medici (14341494) (1966); and J.R. Hale, Florence and the Medici: The Pattern of Control (1977, reissued 1983). An important treatment of a much-discussed character is Donald Weinstein, Savonorola and Florence: Prophecy and Patriotism in the Renaissance (1970).Other Tuscan republics are considered in David Herlihy, Pisa in the Early Renaissance: A Study of Urban Growth (1958, reissued 1973), and his work on Pistoia cited in the section above; Christine Meek, Lucca, 13691400 (1978); and William M. Bowsky, A Medieval Italian Commune: Siena Under the Nine, 12871355 (1981).D.S. Chambers, The Imperial Age of Venice, 13801580 (1970); and the work by Lane on Venice, cited above in the section on histories of the individual city-states, are two excellent general summaries on the Serenissima. Interesting contributions on the same topic are in Oliver Logan, Culture and Society in Venice, 14701790: The Renaissance and Its Heritage (1972); J.R. Hale (ed.), Renaissance Venice (1973); Robert Finlay, Politics in Renaissance Venice (1980); and Edward Muir, Civic Ritual in Renaissance Venice (1981).The Papal State is treated in the work by Partner cited in the section above; and studies of some of its signori include Cecilia M. Ady, The Bentivoglio of Bologna: A Study in Despotism (1937, reprinted 1969); John Larner, The Lords of Romagna: Romagnol Society and the Origins of the Signorie (1965); Werner L. Gundersheimer, Ferrara: The Style of a Renaissance Despotism (1973); Trevor Dean, Land and Power in Late Medieval Ferrara: The Rule of the Este, 13501450 (1988); and P.J. Jones, The Malatesta of Rimini and the Papal State: A Political History (1974). Other signorial regimes have been considered in D.M. Bueno De Mesquita, Giangaleazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan (13511402): A Study in the Political Career of an Italian Despot (1941); J.K. Hyde, Padua in the Age of Dante (1966); and Louis Green, Castruccio Castracani: A Study on the Origins and Character of a Fourteenth-Century Italian Despotism (1986).Works on the southern kingdoms include Denis Mack Smith, A History of Sicily, vol. 1, Medieval Sicily, 8001713 (1968, reprinted 1988); Benedetto Croce, History of the Kingdom of Naples (1970; originally published in Italian, 1925); and Alan Ryder, The Kingdom of Naples Under Alfonso the Magnanimous: The Making of a Modern State (1976). John Larner Early modern Italy (16th18th centuries) Two magisterial works frame this period in its European perspective: Fernand Braudel, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, 2 vol. (197273; originally published in French, 2nd rev. and expanded ed., 1966); and Franco Venturi, Settecento riformatore (1969 ), with English translations of 2 vol., The End of the Old Regime in Europe, 17681776: The First Crisis (1989) and The End of the Old Regime in Europe, 17761789, 2 parts (199091).General surveys of the period include the work by Hay and Law cited in the section above; Eric Cochrane, Italy, 15301630, ed. by Julius Kirshner (1988); and Dino Carpanetto and Giuseppe Ricuperati, Italy in the Age of Reason, 16851789 (1987). Other relevant studies are Stuart Woolf, A History of Italy, 17001860: The Social Constraints of Political Change (1979, reissued 1991); and the relevant volumes of The New Cambridge Modern History, 14 vol. (195779); and of The Cambridge Economic History of Europe, 2nd ed. (1966 ).Studies of the individual states include, on Savoy, Geoffrey Symcox, Victor Amadeus II: Absolutism in the Savoyard State, 16751730 (1983); on Venice, the work by Lane cited above in the section on histories of the individual city-states; and the work by Muir cited in the section above; on Florence, Eric Cochrane, Florence in the Forgotten Centuries, 15271800 (1973); and R. Burr Litchfield, Emergence of a Bureaucracy: The Florentine Patricians, 15301790 (1986); on Milan, Domenico Sella, Crisis and Continuity: The Economy of Spanish Lombardy in the Seventeenth Century (1979); on Rome, Peter Partner, Renaissance Rome, 15001559: A Portrait of a Society (1976); Jean Delumeau, Catholicism Between Luther and Voltaire: A New View of the Counter-Reformation (1977; originally published in French, 1971); and Hanns Gross, Rome in the Age of Enlightenment: The Post-Tridentine Syndrome and the Ancien Regime (1990); on Naples, Antonio Calabria and John A. Marino (eds. and trans.), Good Government in Spanish Naples, trans. from Italian (1990); and Rosario Villari, The Revolt of Naples (1993; originally published in Italian, 1967); and, on Sicily, H.G. Koenigsberger, The Practice of Empire (1969); and the work by Mack Smith cited in the previous section along with its companion volume, Modern Sicily, After 1713 (1968, reissued 1988).Topics of special interest are addressed in Franco Venturi, Italy and the Enlightenment: Studies in a Cosmopolitan Century, ed. by Stuart Woolf (1972); Carlo Ginzburg, The Cheese and the Worms: The Cosmos of a Sixteenth-Century Miller (1980, reissued 1992; originally published in Italian, 1976), and The Night Battles: Witchcraft & Agrarian Cults in the Sixteenth & Seventeenth Centuries (1983, reissued 1992; originally published in Italian, 1966); Jonathan D. Spence, The Memory Palace of Matteo Ricci (1984); Guido Ruggiero, The Boundaries of Eros: Sex Crime and Sexuality in Renaissance Venice (1985); Mario Biagoli, Galileo, Courtier: The Practice of Science in the Culture of Absolutism (1993); Peter Burke, The Historical Anthropology of Early Modern Italy: Essays on Perception and Communication (1987); Paul F. Grendler, Schooling in Renaissance Italy: Literacy and Learning, 13001600 (1989); and Margaret L. King, Women of the Renaissance (1991). John A. Marino Revolution, restoration, and unification Works covering this period include George Martin, The Red Shirt and the Cross of Savoy: The Story of Italy's Risorgimento, 17481871 (1969); the work by Woolf on political change cited in the previous section; John A. Davis and Paul Ginsborg (eds.), Society and Politics in the Age of the Risorgimento (1991), a collection of essays; Frank J. Coppa, The Origins of the Italian Wars of Independence (1992); Raymond Grew, A Sterner Plan for Italian Unity (1963); Clara M. Lovett, The Democratic Movement in Italy, 18301876 (1982), and Giuseppe Ferrari and the Italian Revolution (1979); Denis Mack Smith, Cavour and Garibaldi, 1860: A Study in Political Conflict (1954, reissued 1985); and Paul Ginsborg, Daniele Manin and the Venetian Revolution of 184849 (1979). Entries on major events and figures may be found in Frank J. Coppa (ed.), Dictionary of Modern Italian History (1985). Clara M. Lovett Italy since 1870 The fullest one-volume studies in English are Denis Mack Smith, Italy: A Modern History, new ed. rev. and enlarged (1969); and Martin Clark, Modern Italy, 18711982 (1984). Edward R. Tannenbaum and Emiliana P. Noether (eds.), Modern Italy: A Topical History Since 1861 (1974), covers particular aspects; as do Massimo Livi-Bacci, A History of Italian Fertility During the Last Two Centuries (1977); Denis Mack Smith, Italy and Its Monarchy (1989); A.C. Jemolo, Church and State in Italy, 18501950 (1960; originally published in Italian, 1955); and Shepard B. Clough, The Economic History of Modern Italy (1964). Christopher Seton-Watson, Italy from Liberalism to Fascism, 18701925 (1967, reprinted 1981); and C.J. Lowe and F. Marzari, Italian Foreign Policy, 18701940 (1975), are excellent on the first half of the period. The best work in Italian is that by Giorgio Candeloro, Storia dell'Italia moderna, vol. 611 (197086), which covers the years from 1871 to 1948.The pre-1914 period is addressed in Raffaele Romanelli, L'Italia liberale (18611900) (1979), and Il comando impossibile: stato e societ nell'Italia liberale (1988). Foreign policy before World War I is the topic of R.J.B. Bosworth, Italy, the Least of the Great Powers (1979), and Italy and the Approach of the First World War (1983). The early socialist movement is discussed well in Richard Hostetter, The Italian Socialist Movement, vol. 1, Origins (18601882) (1958); and Louise A. Tilly, Politics and Class in Milan, 18811901 (1992). The army is treated in John Gooch, Army, State, and Society in Italy, 18701915 (1989). On Giolitti, A. William Salomone, Italy in the Giolittian Era (1960), is still very useful. Frank J. Coppa, Planning, Protectionism, and Politics in Liberal Italy (1971), is also of interest. An excellent overview of economic history is given in Gianni Toniolo, An Economic History of Liberal Italy, 18501918 (1990; originally published in Italian, 1988); and Giorgio Fu (ed.), Lo sviluppo economico in Italia, 3 vol. (196981).Roland Sarti (ed.), The Ax Within: Italian Fascism in Action (1974); and David Forgacs (ed.), Rethinking Italian Fascism: Capitalism, Populism, and Culture (1986), are good collections of articles. Edward R. Tannenbaum, The Fascist Experience (1972, also published as Fascism in Italy, 1973); and Luisa Passerini, Fascism in Popular Memory: The Cultural Experience of the Turin Working Class (1987; originally published in Italian, 1984), are interesting social histories. Denis Mack Smith, Mussolini (1981), is indispensable; more detail is available in Renzo De Felice, Mussoli

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