Meaning of LEBANON in English
county, southeastern Pennsylvania, U.S., located midway between the cities of Harrisburg and Reading. It consists of a central plain that rises to low hills in the south and to Blue Mountain in the north. The county is drained by Swatara, Stony, Little Swatara, Quittapahilla, Tulpehocken, Conewago, and Hammer creeks. Located in the northern half of the county are Swatara and Memorial Lake state parks, while the Appalachian National Scenic Trail follows the ridgeline of Blue Mountain. Scotch-Irish and Germans (Pennsylvania Dutch) settled in the region in the early 18th century. Michter's Distillery, one of America's first legal distilleries, produced corn mash whiskey along Snitz Creek from 1753 to about 1990. The county was created in 1813. County traffic increased after the completion of a mountain tunnel for the Union Canal (1827) and the arrival of the Lehigh Valley Railroad (1857). Communities include Lebanon city (the county seat), Palmyra, and Myerstown. The economy is based on manufacturing (textiles, steel, and metal products), livestock (cattle, hogs, and poultry), and field crops (tobacco, barley, and soybeans). Area 362 square miles (937 square km). Pop. (1990) 113,744; (1996 est.) 117,179. city, seat of Wilson county, north central Tennessee, U.S., 30 miles (48 km) east of Nashville and 6 miles south of the Cumberland River. Established in 1802 on an overland stagecoach route, it was named for the biblical Lebanon (because of a profusion of cedar trees) and developed as a trading centre for livestock and farm products. The most important cash crop is tobacco. Industrial activities include flour milling and the manufacture of bedding, clothing, leather and rubber goods, auto parts, furniture, and clocks. Cedarwood is a significant economic factor, and the nearby Cedars of Lebanon State Park and Forest has one of the largest stands of virgin cedar in the United States. Lebanon is the seat of Cumberland University (1842) and Castle Heights Military Academy (1902). The Hermitage, home of President Andrew Jackson, is 18 miles west. Lebanon is where Sam Houston, who became president of the Republic of Texas, began his legal practice (1818). Inc. town, 1805; city, 1819. Pop. (1990) 15,208; (1994 est.) 18,945. city, Grafton county, western New Hampshire, U.S., on the Mascoma River near its junction with the Connecticut River, just south of Hanover. Founded in 1761 by settlers from Connecticut, the town grew slowly until the arrival (1848) of the railroad brought industrial development. Manufactures include metal-cutting plasma torches and metal and electrical items. Winter sports, based on nearby ski resorts, are an added source of income. Inc. city, 1958. Pop. (1990) 12,183; (1996 est.) 12,571. city, seat (1813) of Lebanon county, southeastern Pennsylvania, U.S., in the Lebanon Valley, 23 miles (37 km) east of Harrisburg. Settled by immigrant Germans in the 1720s, it was laid out (c. 1750) by George Steitz and was first called Steitztown. Later it was renamed for the biblical Lebanon. Its location near the famous Cornwall ore mines and other mineral deposits led to its development before the American Revolution as an iron centre. Its growth was spurred by construction of the Union Canal (1827) and the Lebanon Valley Railroad (1857). Principal manufactures include hardwood lumber products, aluminum products, and processed foods. Lebanon Valley College (1866) is at Annville, 5 miles (8 km) west. Inc. borough, 1821; city, 1885. Pop. (1990) city, 24,800; HarrisburgLebanonCarlisle MSA, 587,986; (1998 est.) city, 23,442; (1996 est.) HarrisburgLebanonCarlisle MSA, 614,755. officially Republic of Lebanon, Arabic Lubnan, or al-Jumhuriyah al-Lubnaniyah country located on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. Consisting of a narrow strip of territory approximately 135 miles (215 kilometres) long from north to south and 20 to 55 miles wide from east to west, the country is bounded to the north and east by Syria and to the south by Israel. With an area of 3,950 square miles (10,230 square kilometres), Lebanon is one of the world's smaller sovereign states. The capital is Beirut. Though Lebanon, particularly its coastal region, was the site of some of the oldest human settlements in the worldthe Phoenician ports of Tyre (modern Sur), Sidon (Sayda), and Byblos (Jubayl) were dominant centres of trade and culture in the 3rd millennium BCit was not until 1920 that the contemporary state came into being. In that year France, which administered Lebanon as a League of Nations mandate, established the state of Greater Lebanon. Lebanon then became a republic in 1926 and achieved independence in 1943. As an Arab republic, Lebanon shares many of the cultural characteristics of the Arab world, yet it has attributes that differentiate it from many of its Arab neighbours. Its rugged, mountainous terrain has served throughout history as an asylum for diverse religious and ethnic groups and for political dissidents. Lebanon is one of the most densely populated countries in the Mediterranean area. It has one of the highest rates of literacy. Although its prosperity is unevenly distributed, having bypassed large segments of its population, wealth and privilege appear to be evenly distributed among its middle-income group. Notwithstanding its meagre natural resources, Lebanon long managed to serve as a busy commercial and cultural centre for the Middle East. This outward image of vitality and growth nevertheless disguised serious problems. Not only did Lebanon have to grapple with internal problems of social and economic organization, but also it had to struggle to define its position in relation to Israel, to its Arab neighbours, and to Palestinian refugees living in Lebanon. The Lebanese pluralistic communal structure eventually collapsed under the pressures of this struggle. Communal rivalries over political power became so exacerbated by the complex issues that arose from the Palestinian question that a breakdown of the governmental system resulted from an extremely damaging civil war that began in 1975. officially Republic of Lebanon, Arabic Lubnan, or Al-Jumhuriyah al-Lubnaniyah predominantly mountainous country located on the Levant (eastern littoral of the Mediterranean Sea). Lebanon extends about 135 miles (215 km) from north to south and is about 55 miles (90 km) at its widest from east to west. It is bounded by Syria (north and east), Israel (south), and the Mediterranean Sea (west). The capital is Beirut. Area 3,950 square miles (10,230 square km). Pop. (1993 est.) 2,872,000. town (township), New London county, east-central Connecticut, U.S. Settled in 1695 and incorporated in 1700, its name was inspired by a nearby cedar forest that suggested the biblical cedars of Lebanon. In colonial times the town was on the most direct road between New York City and Boston. The home of Jonathan Trumbull (1740), American Revolutionary governor of Connecticut, is preserved in Lebanon, and the Revolutionary War office (1727), which served as the governor's headquarters from which Connecticut's war effort was directed, is now a museum. Agriculture is the mainstay of the town's economy. Area 54 square miles (140 square km). Pop. (1990) 6,041; (1996 est.) 6,337. city, seat (1849) of Laclede county, south-central Missouri, U.S., in the Ozark Mountains. Founded c. 1849, it was named for Lebanon, Tenn. During the Civil War the town was occupied alternately by Federal and Confederate troops because of its strategic location on the military road (later U.S. Route 66, now Interstate 44) between Springfield and St. Louis. Agriculture, dairying, manufacturing (aluminum boats, clothing, barrels), and tourism are the economic mainstays. Harold Bell Wright was pastor (190507) of the Lebanon Christian Church, which was the setting of his novel The Calling of Dan Matthews (1909). Nearby are Bennett Springs State Park (west), Mark Twain National Forest (east), and Lake of the Ozarks (north). Inc. 1877. Pop. (1990) 9,983. Additional reading Geography General discussions of the land and people may be found in W.B. Fisher, The Middle East, 7th ed. (1978); and David C. Gordon, The Republic of Lebanon: Nation in Jeopardy (1983). Shereen Khairallah, Lebanon (1979), is an annotated bibliography of works on all aspects of the country. Economic and social matters are discussed by Abdul-Amir Badrud-din, The Bank of Lebanon (1984); Nadim G. Khalaf, The Economic Implications of the Size of Nations; with Special Reference to Lebanon (1971); Huda C. Zurayk and Haroutune K. Armenian, Beirut 1984 (1985); Joseph Chamie, Religion and Fertility: Arab Christian-Muslim Differentials (1981); Yusif A. Sayigh, Entrepreneurs of Lebanon (1962), a study of the role of entrepreneurs in the national development of Lebanon; Anne H. Fuller, Buarij: Portrait of a Lebanese Muslim Village (1961, reissued 1968); Liliane Germanos-Ghazaly, Le Paysan, la terre et la femme: organisation sociale d'un village du Mont-Liban (1978); Friedrich Ragette (ed.), Beirut of Tomorrow: Planning for Reconstruction (1983); and John Gulick, Tripoli: A Modern Arab City (1967). Useful discussions of Lebanese government include Michael W. Suleiman, Political Parties in Lebanon: The Challenge of a Fragmented Political Culture (1967); and George Grassmuck and Kamal Salibi, Reformed Administration in Lebanon, 2nd ed. (1964). See also Adel A. Freiha, L'Arme et l'tat au Liban, 19451980 (1980); and R.D. McLaurin, Lebanon and Its Army: Past, Present, and Future, in Edward E. Azar et al., The Emergence of a New Lebanon: Fantasy or Reality?, pp. 79114 (1984). Cultural matters are discussed by Lawrence I. Conrad, Culture and Learning in Beirut, The American Scholar, 52:463478 (Autumn 1983); and Friedrich Ragette, Architecture in Lebanon: The Lebanese House During the 18th and 19th Centuries (1974, reprinted 1980). History Ancient history is detailed in The Cambridge Ancient History, especially vol. 1 in 2 pts., 3rd ed. (197071), vol. 2, part 1, 3rd ed. (1973), and vol. 3, part 3, 2nd ed. (1982); and in Donald Harden, The Phoenicians, rev. ed. (1971). Other useful studies include Maurice Dunand, Byblos: Its History, Ruins and Legends, 2nd ed. (1968; originally published in French, 2nd ed., 1968, reissued 1973); Friedrich Ragette, Baalbek (1980); F.M. Heichelheim, Roman Syria, in Tenney Frank (ed.), An Economic Survey of Ancient Rome, vol. 4, pp. 121257 (1938, reprinted 1975); J.-P. Rey-Coquais, Syrie Romaine, de Pompe Diocltien, Journal of Roman Studies, 68:4473 (1978); Hildegard Temporini and Wolfgang Haase (eds.), Aufstieg und Niedergang der Rmischen Welt, vol. 2, part 8, Politische Geschichte: Provinzen und Rundvlker: Syrien, Palstina, Arabien, pp. 3294 (1977); and Nina Jidejian, Byblos Through the Ages (1968), Tyre Through the Ages (1969), Sidon Through the Ages (1971), Beirut Through the Ages (1973), and Baalbek: Heliopolis, City of the Sun (1975).The most important works on Lebanon's medieval and modern history are Philip K. Hitti, Lebanon in History: From the Earliest Times to the Present, 3rd ed. (1967); and Kamal S. Salibi, The Modern History of Lebanon (1965, reissued 1977), and A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered (1988). The Ottoman period is discussed by Abdul-Rahim Abu-Husayn, Provincial Leaderships in Syria, 15751650 (1985); Dominique Chevallier, La Socit du Mont Liban l'poque de la rvolution industrielle en Europe (1971, reissued 1982); and Iliya F. Harik, Politics and Change in a Traditional Society: Lebanon, 17111845 (1968).Twentieth-century history is explored by Albert H. Hourani, Syria and Lebanon: A Political Essay (1946, reprinted 1968); and Michael C. Hudson, The Precarious Republic: Political Modernization in Lebanon (1968, reissued 1985). The civil war and subsequent events are evaluated by Kamal S. Salibi, Cross Roads to Civil War: Lebanon, 19581976 (1976, reissued as Crossroads to Civil War, 1988); Walid Khalidi, Lebanon: Yesterday and Tomorrow, The Middle East Journal, 43(3):375387 (Summer 1989); Helena Cobban, The Making of Modern Lebanon (1985); David Gilmour, Lebanon, the Fractured Country, rev. and updated ed. (1987); N. Kliot, The Collapse of the Lebanese State, Middle Eastern Studies, 23:5474 (January 1987); and Halim Barakat (ed.), Toward a Viable Lebanon (1988). Samir G. Khalaf Clovis F. Maksoud Richard David Barnett William L. Ochsenwald Glenn Richard Bugh Cultural life The cultural milieu Historically, Lebanon is the heir of a long succession of Mediterranean culturesPhoenician, Greek, and Arab. Its cultural milieu continues to show clear manifestations of a rich and diverse heritage. As an Arab country, Lebanon shares more than a common language with neighbouring Arab states; it also has a similar cultural heritage and common interests. In the 19th century Lebanese linguists were in the vanguard of the Arabic literary awakening. In more recent times, writers of the calibre of Khalil Gibran, Georges Shehade, and Michel Chiha have been widely translated and have reached an international audience. While for a time cultural life in Lebanon was predominantly centred around universities and affiliated institutions, there has been an impressive proliferation of cultural activities under other auspices. Beirut has several museums and a number of private libraries, learned societies, and research institutions. The state of the arts Lebanon's antiquities and ruins have provided not only inspiration for artists but also magnificent backdrops for annual music festivals, most notably the Baalbek International Festival. At one time, international opera, ballet, symphony, and drama companies, of nearly all nationalities, competed to enrich the cultural life of Beirut. Lebanon has produced a number of gifted young artists who have shown a refreshing readiness to experiment with new expressive forms. Some Lebanese are active in European opera and theatre companies, while others are intent on creating a wider audience for classical Arabic music and theatre. The cultural awakening encouraged the revival of national folk arts, particularly song, dabkah (the national dance), and zajal (folk poetry), and the refinement of traditional crafts. Although the Baalbek International Festival was suspended during the civil war, popular theatre and radio satires continued to flourish in the war-ridden country.
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