born April 10 [April 22, New Style], 1870, Simbirsk, Russia died Jan. 21, 1924, Gorki [later Gorki Leninskiye], near Moscow original name Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov founder of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), inspirer and leader of the Bolshevik Revolution (1917), and the architect, builder, and first head (191724) of the Soviet state. He was the founder of the organization known as Comintern (Communist International) and the posthumous source of Leninism, the doctrine codified and conjoined with Marx's works by Lenin's successors to form Marxism-Leninism, which became the Communist worldview. If the Bolshevik Revolution isas some people have called itthe most significant political event of the 20th century, then Lenin must for good or ill be regarded as the century's most significant political leader. Not only in the scholarly circles of the former Soviet Union but even among many non-Communist scholars, he has been regarded as both the greatest revolutionary leader and revolutionary statesman in history, as well as the greatest revolutionary thinker since Marx. Additional reading The most complete collection of Lenin's works is Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, 5th ed., 55 vol. (195865), published in Moscow; it is supplemented by his Biograficheskaia khronika, 18701924, 13 vol. (197085), and Leninskii sbornik, 40 vol. in 31 (192485). The Collected Works, 45 vol. (196070), is a Soviet English translation of the 4th Russian edition of Lenin's works, enriched by editorial notes from the 5th edition. Selected Works, 3 vol. (197071), includes most of the works mentioned in this article and many more. Western publications of Lenin's works in English include The Essentials of Lenin, 2 vol. (1947, reprinted 1973), which follows the Soviet edition; and Robert C. Tucker (ed.), The Lenin Anthology (1975), with interpretive comments.Biographical and critical studies include Robert D. Warth, Lenin (1973), an introductory study; Alfred G. Meyer, Leninism (1957, reprinted 1986), an analysis of Lenin's political philosophy; David Shub, Lenin, rev. ed. (1966, reprinted 1977), a readable and informative biography by a contemporary; Adam B. Ulam, The Bolsheviks: The Intellectual and Political History of the Triumph of Communism in Russia (1965, reissued 1973), a learned political biography; Bertram D. Wolfe, Three Who Made a Revolution: A Biographical History, 4th rev. ed. (1964, reissued 1984), a pioneering combined biography of Lenin, Trotsky, and Stalin, and The Bridge and the Abyss: The Troubled Friendship of Maxim Gorky and V.I. Lenin (1967, reprinted 1983); Nadezhda Krupskaya, Reminiscences of Lenin (1959; originally published in Russian, 1924), reticent, impersonal recollections by Lenin's widow; Leon Trotsky, Lenin: Notes for a Biographer (1971; originally published in Russian, 1924), an appreciation of Lenin of the Iskra period and 191718, the periods of Trotsky's closest collaboration with Lenin, and The Young Lenin, trans. from Russian (1972); Nikolay Valentinov, Encounters with Lenin (1968; originally published in Russian, 1953), and The Early Years of Lenin, trans. from Russian (1969), revealing observations on Lenin's personality by a former associate; Dietrich Geyer, Lenin in der Russischen Sozialdemokratie (1962), a scholarly study of Lenin and the origins of the Bolshevik-Menshevik split; Leonard Schapiro and Peter Reddaway (eds.), Lenin: The Man, the Theorist, the Leader: A Reappraisal (1967, reissued 1987), a collection of essays; Angelica Balabanoff, Impressions of Lenin (1964), by the first secretary of the Communist International; and Robert Service, Lenin: A Political Life, 3 vol. (198595).Lenin is the subject of many historical studies, including Richard Pipes, The Russian Revolution (1990), and Russia Under the Bolshevik Regime (1993), the latter partly based on new archival sources; Harold Shukman, Lenin and the Russian Revolution (1967, reissued 1977); Harold Shukman and George Katkov, Lenin's Path to Power: Bolshevism and the Destiny of Russia (1971); Helmut Gruber, International Communism in the Era of Lenin: A Documentary History (1967, reissued 1972), with interpretive essays; Branko Lazitch and Milorad M. Drachkovitch, Lenin and the Comintern (1972); Alfred Rosmer, Lenin's Moscow (1971, reissued 1987; also published as Moscow Under Lenin, 1972; originally published in French, 1953), an insider's account of the period 192024, exploring the role of the party in the international Communist movement; Michael Pearson, The Sealed Train (1975, reissued 1989), an account of Lenin's associations with Germany and of the Russian Revolution; T.H. Rigby, Lenin's Government: Sovnarkom, 19171922 (1979); and Hlne Carrre D'encausse, Lenin: Revolution and Power (1982; originally published in French, 1979), a study of economic, social, political, and ideological issues. Esther Kingston-Mann, Lenin and the Problem of Marxist Peasant Revolution (1983), emphasizes the role of the peasants in the Russian Revolution. Lenin's influence on the Bolsheviks as well as their differences are addressed in Robert C. Williams, The Other Bolsheviks: Lenin and His Critics, 19041914 (1986). R. Craig Nation, War on War: Lenin, the Zimmerwald Left, and the Origins of Communist Internationalism (1989), explores Lenin's part in the beginnings of Communism in the 20th century.Interpretive studies of Lenin and Leninism include Georg Lukcs, Lenin: A Study on the Unity of His Thought (1971; originally published in German, 1924), an evaluation by a Hungarian Marxist philosopher; David Lane, Leninism: A Sociological Interpretation (1981); Alain Besanon, The Rise of the Gulag: Intellectual Origins of Leninism (1981; originally published in French, 1977); Neil Harding, Lenin's Political Thought, 2 vol. (197781); Stanley W. Page, The Geopolitics of Leninism (1982), a critical look at Lenin's politics; and A.J. Polan, Lenin and the End of Politics (1984), an analysis of Lenin's politics and influence. Official Soviet interpretation of Lenin's role is provided by Boris N. Ponomarev, Lenin and the Revolutionary Process, trans. from Russian (1980). Nina Tumarkin, Lenin Lives!: The Lenin Cult in Soviet Russia (1983), explores the veneration of Lenin. Further references can be found in David R. Egan, Melinda A. Egan, and Julie Anne Genthner, V.I. Lenin: An Annotated Bibliography of English-Language Sources to 1980 (1982). Major Works: Books Chto Takoye Druzya Naroda, kak oni voyuyut protiv Sotsial-Demokratov? (hectographic editions from 1894, printed from 1920; What the Friends of the People Are, and How They Fight the Social-Democrats, 1946); Razvitiye kapitalizma v Rossi (1899; augmented ed., 1908; The Development of Capitalism in Russia, 1956); Chto delat? (1902; What Is To Be Done?, 1929, 1933, 1950, 1963); Shag vperyod, dva shaga nazad (1904; One Step Forward, Two Steps Back, 1941); Dve taktiki Sotsial-Demokraty v demokraticheskoy revolyutsi (1905; Two Tactics of Social-Democracy in the Democratic Revolution, 1935, 1947); Agrarny vopros i Kritiki Marksa (1908, first chapters already published in periodicals from 1901); Agrarnaya programma Sotsial-Demokratyi v pervoy russkoy revolyutsi 19051907 godov (1908, 1917; The Agrarian Programme of Social-Democracy in the First Russian Revolution, 1954); Imperializm, kak noveyshy etap kapitalizma (1917, later retitled Imperializm, kak vysshaya stadiya kapitalizma; Imperialism: The Latest Stage in the Development of Capitalism, 1924; and Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism, 1933, 1939, 1947); Gosudarstvo i revolyutsiya (1917; The State and Revolution, 1919); Proletarskaya revolyutsiya i renegat Kautsky (1918; The Proletarian Revolution and Kautsky the Renegade, 1920); Detskaya bolezn levizny v kommunizme (1920; Left Wing Communism: An Infantile Disorder, 1920, 1934, 1961). Marxist periodicals edited or controlled by Lenin Iskra, 51 numbers (190003); Zarya, 4 numbers (190102); Vperyod, weekly, 18 numbers (1905); Novaya Zhizn, daily, 28 numbers (1905); Proletary, weekly, 26 numbers (1905); Volna, daily, 25 numbers (1906); Vperyod, daily, 17 numbers (1906); Ekho, daily, 14 numbers (1906); Proletary, 50 numbers (190609); Sotsial-Demokrat, 58 numbers (190817; wholly Leninist from 1911); Zvezda, at first weekly, then more frequent, 69 numbers (191012); Rabochaya Gazeta, 9 numbers (191012); Prosveshcheniye, monthly, 31 numbers (191114; and 1 final number, 1917); Pravda, daily (191214 and from 1917 with numerous changes of name 191314 and JulyOctober 1917); Kommunist, 1 double number (1915); Sbornik Sotsial-Demokrata, 2 numbers (1916). Journalism and Party theses: O zadachakh proletariata v dannoy revolyutsi (The April Theses, 1951), O dvoevlasti, and Uroki revolyutsi (Lessons of the Revolution, 1918), all in Pravda, 1917; Ocheredniye zadachi Sovietskoy vlasti, Pravda (1918; The Soviets at Work, 1918; and The Immediate Tasks of the Soviet Government, 1951).
LENIN, VLADIMIR ILICH
Meaning of LENIN, VLADIMIR ILICH in English
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