Meaning of PARAGUAY in English

officially Republic of Paraguay, Spanish Repblica del Paraguay, Guaran Tet Paraguype landlocked country of south-central South America. Paraguay is bordered on the east by Brazil, on the southeast, south, and southwest by Argentina, and on the north and northwest by Bolivia. The capital is Asuncin. Area 157,048 square miles (406,752 square km). Pop. (1996 est.) 4,964,000. officially Republic of Paraguay, Spanish Repblica del Paraguay country in south-central South America. A landlocked country, it is bordered by Bolivia to the northwest and north, Brazil to the northeast and east, and Argentina to the southeast, south, and west. It has a total area of 157,048 square miles (406,752 square kilometres). The national capital is Asuncin, which is located on the east bank of the Paraguay River opposite the mouth of its primary western tributary, the Pilcomayo River. Rivers play an extremely important role in the economic life of Paraguay, providing the country with access to the Atlantic Ocean and with sites for hydroelectric power plants. Indeed, the name of the country is said to derive from the Guaran Indian word meaning river that gives birth to the sea. Additional reading Geography General surveys of Paraguayan history, economics, and politics include Adolf N. Schuster, Paraguay: Land, Volk, Geschichte, Wirtschaftsleben, und Kolonisation (1929), on early 20th-century Paraguay; and Paul H. Lewis, Paraguay under Stroessner (1980), and Socialism, Liberalism, and Dictatorship in Paraguay (1982). The best bibliographies are those by David Lewis Jones, Paraguay (1979); and R. Andrew Nickson (compiler), Paraguay (1987); and the extended listing in R. Andrew Nickson, Historical Dictionary of Paraguay, 2nd ed., rev., enlarged, and updated (1993). Although dated, Joseph Pincus, The Economy of Paraguay (1968), is one of the best general surveys of the economy in English. George Pendle, Paraguay: A Riverside Nation, 3rd ed. (1967), is brief but informative. J.M.G. Kleinpenning, Man and Land in Paraguay (1987), discusses agriculture and land tenure patterns through the Stroessner era. Branislava Sunik, Los aborgenes del Paraguay (1978 ), gives a comprehensive survey of Indian groups. Ricardo Canese, Itaip y la cuestin energtica en el Paraguay (1983), is a critique of the Itaip power project. Social conditions and culture are dealt with in Riordan Roett and Richard Scott Saks, Paraguay: The Personalist Legacy (1991). History General historical treatments include Efram Cardozo, Paraguay independiente (1949, reissued 1987), and Breve histori del Paraguay (1965, reprinted 1987); Carlos R. Centurin, Historia de la cultura paraguaya, 2 vol. (1961); and Harris Gaylord Warren, Paraguay: An Informal History (1949, reprinted 1982), with a useful bibliography. The best treatment of the independence epoch is Fulgencio R. Moreno, Estudio sobre la independencia del Paraguay, 3rd ed. edited by Carlos Schauman (1985). Also useful is Rafael Eladio Velzquez, El Paraguay en 1811 (1965). The Francia period is addressed by Julio Csar Chaves, El supremo dictador, 4th ed. (1964); and John Hoyt Williams, The Rise and Fall of the Paraguayan Republic, 18001870 (1979), which also deals with the two Lpezes. See also Thomas Whigham, The Politics of River Trade: Tradition and Development in the Upper Plata, 17801870 (1991), with a comprehensive bibliography. The first Lpez and his modernization of Paraguay are treated well in Juan Francisco Prez Acosta, Carlos Antonio Lpez, obrero mximo, labor administrativa y constructiva (1948); and Julio Csar Chaves, El Presidente Lpez, 2nd. ed. (1968). The War of the Triple Alliance is treated in Efram Cardozo, Vsperas de la guerra del Paraguay (1954), and Hace cien aos, 13 vol. (196782), a day-by-day chronicle of the war years; and Harris Gaylord Warren, Paraguay and the Triple Alliance: The Postwar Decade, 18691878 (1978). The postwar era is chronicled by Harris Gaylord Warren and Katherine F. Warren, Rebirth of the Paraguayan Republic: The First Colorado Era, 18781904 (1985); and Jos Rodriguez Alcal, El Paraguay moderno (1915). Coverage of the Chaco War can be found in David H. Zook, Jr., The Conduct of the Chaco War (1960); and Roberto Querejazu Calvo, Masamaclay, 4th ed. (1981). Treatments of the more recent decades include Michael Grow, The Good Neighbor Policy and Authoritarianism in Paraguay: United States Economic Expansion and Great-Power Rivalry in Latin America During World War II (1981); and Carlos R. Miranda, The Stroessner Era: Authoritarian Rule in Paraguay (1990). John Hoyt Williams Elman R. Service James E. Painter Cultural life The main characteristic of Paraguayan culture is its fusion of both the Guaran and Spanish traditions. Folklore, the arts, and literature reflect this dual origin. The country's outstanding handicraft is the production of andut lace, which is thought to represent a combination of 16th-century needlepoint lacemaking techniques from Europe with Guaran traditions. Daily life Social life tends to revolve around the family. Godparents are particularly important; if parents become unable to provide for their children, godparents are expected to assume responsibility for them. The family usually determines the individual's allegiance to political parties; a change of political affiliation is often considered an act of betrayal. Party membership means less the adherence to a political ideology than the unswerving support of the party's candidates. Especially in the rural areas, such loyalty is often the route to employment. Outside Asuncin the pace of life is slow. A common pastime is drinking terer (a bitter tea of yerba leaves) from a shared gourd or a hollowed cow's horn, or guampa, which often is beautifully carved.

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