Meaning of PHILIP in English
born Nov. 13, 1504, Marburg, Hesse died March 31, 1567, Kassel byname Philip The Magnanimous, German Philipp Der Grossmtige landgrave (Landgraf) of Hesse (1509-67), one of the great figures of German Protestantism, who championed the independence of German princes against the Holy Roman emperor Charles V. born 20 BC died AD 34 son of Herod I the Great; he ruled ably as tetrarch over the former northeastern quarter of his father's kingdom of Judaea. When the Roman emperor Augustus adjusted Herod's will, Philip was assigned to the region east of the Sea of Galilee, in modern northern Israel, Lebanon, and southern Syria. In AD 6, he may have joined in charging his half brother with misgoverning Judaea, but with little benefit to himself, for Judaea then became a Roman province. Of his father's inheritance his was the poorest share, but he ruled it well. Because he had few Jewish subjects, he pursued a policy of Hellenization. His coins bore the Emperor's image, and he rebuilt a town, Beth-saida (on the northern shore of the Sea of Galilee), renaming it Julias in honour of the Emperor's daughter. Near the source of the Jordan he founded another town and allowed it a large degree of self-government, on the Greek pattern. Philip was less extravagant a ruler than any of his brothers. He avoided prolonged trips to Rome, instead travelling extensively in his territory and devoting his time to his subjects. Late in his reign he married Salome, the daughter of Herodias, who was her mother's tool in securing from Herod Antipas the execution of John the Baptist. flourished 8th century, , Italy antipope in July 768. Temporal rulers coveted the papal throne following the death (767) of Pope St. Paul I, and Toto, duke of Nepi, had his brother Constantine II, a layman, elected pope. The Lombard king Desiderius then sent troops to Rome, killing Toto and deposing Constantine. Backed by some Romans, the Lombards, in 768, secretly set Philip up as pope. Philip had been a monk in the monastery of St. Vito. He was ejected, however, and Stephen III (IV) was elected pope on Aug. 1, 768, at which time Philip retired to his monastery. died 249 byname Philip The Arabian, Latin in full Marcus Julius Philippus Roman emperor from 244 to 249. A member of a distinguished equestrian family of Arab descent, he was praetorian prefect when the emperor Gordian III was killed in a mutiny (perhaps with Philip's connivance). Philip became emperor and quickly concluded a peace ending a war with Persia. After undertaking a series of campaigns against the Goths and other tribes on the Danube, he returned to Rome to celebrate in 248 the 1,000th anniversary of the founding of the city. Philip then faced a series of revolts by provincial army commanders, the last of whom, Decius, killed and succeeded him in the autumn of 249. Christian writers of the 4th century and later regarded Philip as the first Christian emperor; whether he was or not is unclear, but it is certain he did not adopt Christianity openly. born 1178 died June 21, 1208, Bamberg, Ger. also called Philip Of Swabia, German Philipp Von Schwaben German Hohenstaufen king whose rivalry for the crown involved him in a decade of warfare with the Welf Otto IV. The youngest son of the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, Philip was destined for the church. After being provost of the cathedral at Aachen, he was, in 1190 or 1191, elected bishop of Wrzburg. Shortly after the death of his brother Frederick (1191), however, he abandoned his ecclesiastical career. Another brother, the Holy Roman emperor Henry VI, made him duke of Tuscany in 1195 and duke of Swabia in 1196. In May 1197 he married Irene, daughter of the Byzantine emperor Isaac II Angelus. At Henry VI's death in September 1197, his son, the future emperor Frederick II, was less than three years old, and the German princes were unwilling to accept him as king. The princes favourable to the Hohenstaufens elected Philip German king in March 1198. The opposing party, led by Archbishop Adolf of Cologne, elected Otto, a son of Henry the Lion of Brunswick of the rival Welf dynasty, king in June of that year. Otto was crowned at Aachen, the proper place for the ceremony, by Archbishop Adolf. Philip's coronation, by another prelate, did not take place until September 1198 at Mainz. In the ensuing civil war the Hohenstaufen cause prospered at first. In 1201, however, Pope Innocent III recognized Otto as king and excommunicated Philip. Philip's fortunes were only restored in 1204, by a series of defections from Otto's side, culminating in that of Adolf of Cologne himself. In June 1205, Adolf crowned Philip at Aachen. The city of Cologne, which, notwithstanding its archbishop, had sided with Otto, was captured in January 1207, and Otto's cause seemed lost. Late in 1207, however, when Philip offered to give Otto one of his daughters in marriage and to enfeoff him with either the duchy of Swabia or the kingdom of Arles, Otto, buoyed by hopes of financial, if not military, support from the kings of England and Denmark, rejected the offer. Nevertheless, a truce was arranged that lasted until June of the following year. In 1208 Pope Innocent III recognized Philip as king and promised to crown him emperor. Philip, who had mobilized his army at Bamberg in order to move against Otto, was waiting for the truce to expire when he was murdered by Otto of Wittelsbach, count Palatine of Bavaria, to whom he had refused to give one of his daughters in marriage. Eventually his daughters were married: Beatrix the Elder to his old rival Otto, Cunigunda to King Wenceslas of Bohemia, and Beatrix the Younger to Ferdinand III of Castile. A brave man, Philip was praised by contemporaries for his mildness and generosity. The diversion of the Fourth Crusade to Constantinople is assumed by some authorities to have been prompted by him in the interests of his brother-in-law, the Byzantine emperor Alexius IV Angelus. Additional reading A bibliography of literature on Philip is given in K.E. Demandt, Schrifttum zur Geschichte und geschichtlichen Landeskunde von Hessen, vol. 1, pp. 203-212 (1965). General information is found in The New Cambridge Modern History, vol. 2, ch. 3 and 6 (1958). Philip's political correspondence is preserved in the Hessisches Staatsarchiv Marburg and has been calendared in F. Kuech and W. Heinemeyer (eds.), Politisches Archiv des Landgrafen Philipp, 4 vol. (1904-59). Valuable individual research is contained in the publications issued in 1904 to honour Philip: Festschrift zum Gedchtnis Philipps des Grossmtigen, published by the Verein fr hessische Geschichte und Landeskunde (1904); Philipp der Grossmtige, published by the Historischen Verein fr das Grossherzogtum Hessen (1904); and C.A. von Drach and G. Koennecke, Die Bildnisse Philipps des Grossmtigen (1905).
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