Meaning of REGGAE in English

style of popular music that originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s and quickly emerged as the country's dominant music. By the 1970s it had become an international style that was particularly popular in Britain, the United States, and Africa. It was widely perceived as a voice of the oppressed. According to an early definition in The Dictionary of Jamaican English (1980), reggae is based on ska, an earlier form of Jamaican popular music, and employs a heavy four-beat rhythm driven by drums, bass guitar, electric guitar, and the scraper, a corrugated stick that is rubbed by a plain stick. (The drum and bass became the foundation of a new instrumental music, dub.) The dictionary further states that the chunking sound of the rhythm guitar that comes at the end of measures acts as an accompaniment to emotional songs often expressing rejection of established white-man' culture. Another term for this distinctive guitar-playing effect, skengay, is identified with the sound of gunshots ricocheting in the streets of Kingston's ghettoes; tellingly, skeng is defined as gun or ratchet knife. Thus reggae expressed the sounds and pressures of ghetto life. It was the music of the emergent rude boy (would-be gangster) culture. In the mid-1960s, under the direction of producers such as Duke Reid and Coxsone Dodd, Jamaican musicians dramatically slowed the tempo of ska, whose energetic rhythms reflected the optimism that had heralded Jamaica's independence from Britain in 1962. The musical style that resulted, rock steady, was short-lived but brought fame to such performers as the Heptones and Alton Ellis. Reggae evolved from these roots and bore the weight of increasingly politicized lyrics that addressed social and economic injustice. Among those who pioneered the new reggae sound, with its faster beat driven by the bass, were Toots and the Maytals, who had their first major hit with 54-46 (That's My Number) (1968), and the WailersBunny Wailer, Peter Tosh, and reggae's biggest star, Bob Marleywho recorded hits at Dodd's Studio One and later worked with producer Lee (Scratch) Perry. Another reggae superstar, Jimmy Cliff, gained international fame as the star of the movie The Harder They Come (1972). A major cultural force in the worldwide spread of reggae, this Jamaican-made film documented how the music became a voice for the poor and dispossessed. Its soundtrack was a celebration of the defiant human spirit that refuses to be suppressed. During this period of reggae's development, a connection grew between the music and the Rastafarian movement, which encourages the relocation of the African diaspora to Africa, deifies the Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie I (whose precoronation name was Ras Tafari), and endorses the sacramental use of ganja (marijuana). Rastafari (Rastafarianism) advocates equal rights and justice and draws on the mystical consciousness of kumina, an earlier Jamaican religious tradition that ritualized communication with ancestors. Besides Marley and the Wailers, groups who popularized the fusion of Rastafari and reggae were Big Youth, Black Uhuru, Burning Spear (principally Winston Rodney), and Culture. Lover's rock, a style of reggae that celebrated erotic love, became popular through the works of artists such as Dennis Brown, Gregory Issacs, and Britain's Maxi Priest. In the 1970s reggae, like ska before it, spread to the United Kingdom, where a mixture of Jamaican immigrants and native-born Britons forged a reggae movement that produced artists such as Aswad, Steel Pulse, UB40, and performance poet Linton Kwesi Johnson. Reggae was embraced in the United States largely through the work of Marleyboth directly and indirectly (as a result of Eric Clapton's popular cover version of Marley's I Shot the Sheriff in 1974). Marley's career illustrates the way reggae was repackaged to suit a rock market whose patrons had used marijuana and were curious about the music that sanctified it. Fusion with other genres was an inevitable consequence of the music's globalization and incorporation into the multinational entertainment industry. The dancehall deejays of the 1980s and '90s who refined the practice of toasting (rapping over instrumental tracks) were heirs to reggae's politicization of music. These deejays influenced the emergence of hip-hop music in the United States and extended the market for reggae into the African-American community. At the end of the 20th century, reggae remained one of the weapons of choice for the urban poor, whose lyrical gun, in the words of performer Shabba Ranks, earned them a measure of respectability. Carolyn J. Cooper Additional reading Stephen Davis and Peter Simon, Reggae Bloodlines, rev. ed. (1979, reissued 1992), is an early exploratory account of the evolution of reggae as a sociocultural statement as well as a form of music. Stephen Davis and Peter Simon, Reggae International (1982), considers the origins of the music and traces its international dispersal. Steve Barrow and Peter Dalton, Reggae: The Rough Guide, ed. by Jonathan Buckley (1997), presents a thorough account of the evolution of reggae from ska to dancehall. Peter Manuel with Kenneth Bilby and Michael Largey, Caribbean Currents: Caribbean Music from Rumba to Reggae (1995), is a comprehensive survey of Caribbean music with a substantial consideration of reggae. Dick Hebdige, Cut 'N' Mix: Culture, Identity and Caribbean Music (1987, reprinted 1990), is an early treatment of the cross-cultural influences in the development of Caribbean music. Carolyn Cooper, Noises in the Blood: Orality, Gender and the Vulgar Body of Jamaican Popular Culture (1993, reissued 1995), is the first book-length study of Jamaican popular culture, focusing on oral and written cultural texts. Garth White, The Development of Jamaican Popular Music Part 2: The Urbanization of the Folk, African-Caribbean Institute of Jamaica Research Review, no. 1, pp. 4780 (1984), is the definitive account of the influence of folk music on the development of Jamaican popular music. Kevin O'Brien Chang and Wayne Chen, Reggae Routes (1998), is the first comprehensive study of reggae written by Jamaicans. Malika Lee Whitney and Dermott Hussey, Bob Marley: Reggae King of the World, 2nd ed. (1994), offers a Jamaican perspective on the international significance of Bob Marley. Timothy White, Catch a Fire: The Life of Bob Marley, rev. and enlarged (1998), is an imaginative reconstruction of Marley's life. Chuck Foster, Roots, Rock, Reggae: An Oral History of Reggae Music from Ska to Dancehall (1999), re-creates reggae's development from the perspective of the participants. Representative Works: Toots and the Maytals, (54-46) That's My Number (1968) Desmond Dekker and the Aces, Israelites (1969) Jimmy Cliff, The Harder They Come (1972) Toots and the Maytals, Funky Kingston (1973) The Wailers, Burnin' (1973) Bob Marley and the Wailers, Natty Dread (1974) Burning Spear, Marcus Garvey (1975) U-Roy, Dread in a Babylon (1975) Bunny Wailer, Blackheart Man (1976) Peter Tosh, Equal Rights (1977) Dennis Brown, Words of Wisdom (1979) Linton Kwesi Johnson, Forces of Victory (1979) Judy Mowatt, Black Woman (1980) Lee (Scratch) Perry, The Return of Pipecock Jackxon (1980) Black Uhuru, Red (1981) Yellowman, Mister Yellowman (1982) UB40, Rat in the Kitchen (1986) Shabba Ranks, As Raw as Ever (1991) Buju Banton, 'Til Shiloh (1995)

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