born July 15, 1606, Leiden, Neth. died Oct. 4, 1669, Amsterdam Dutch painter, draftsman, and etcher of the 17th century, a giant in the history of art. His paintings are characterized by luxuriant brushwork, rich colour, and a mastery of chiaroscuro. Numerous portraits and self-portraits exhibit a profound penetration of character. His drawings constitute a vivid record of contemporary Amsterdam life. A brief account of the life and works of Rembrandt follows; for a full biography, see Rembrandt. Rembrandt left Leiden University to study painting, first under Jacob van Swanenburch in Leiden, and then in Amsterdam under Pieter Lastman. By 1627 he had returned to Leiden to work with another pupil of Lastman, Jan Lievens. Rembrandt was initially influenced by the pictorial innovations of Caravaggio, who had exploited in his paintings the dramatic possibilities of extreme contrasts of light and shadow. Rembrandt, however, adapted this forceful chiaroscuro to depict his figures' mood and inner mental life by a selective accentuation of physical textures, modelling, facial expression, and pose. Such early group compositions as Supper at Emmaus (1630) show Rembrandt's acute sense of drama, as well as his growing ability to portray subtle psychological reactions. Rembrandt's work included portraits (both formal and informal), self-portraits, and Biblical, mythological, and historical subjects. He also produced a steady stream of drawings and etchings. In 1631 Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam, and in 1634 he married Saskia van Uylenburgh. His growing skill and reputation enabled him to take on students, and the many lucrative commissions he received made him a prosperous and successful artist. Innovative group compositions, such as The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp (1632), secured his reputation as a brilliant, if somewhat unconventional, painter. Rembrandt's paintings of the 1630s reveal his unrivalled technical facility in the use of light and shadow and the sensuous depiction of texture. His figurative compositions are exuberant emulations of the Baroque style, portraying dramatic action within dynamic compositions. Rembrandt's portraits, on the other hand, are models of a dignified and searching presentation of character and are carried out with a scrupulous attention to realistic detail and with highly accurate and naturalistic drawing. The early 1640s marked a turning point in both Rembrandt's material fortunes and in the direction of his art. In 1642 Saskia died, being survived only by Rembrandt and one of their four children, Titus. Meanwhile, Rembrandt was unable to retain the full extent of his popularity with the public in the face of the changing tastes in Dutch painting. This shrinking of Rembrandt's material horizons was, however, compensated by a deepening and enrichment of the content of his art. His depictions of Biblical subjects took on new qualities of solemnity, tenderness, and introspective depth. His portraits acquired a tragic and contemplative quality, with the physical details of countenance and dress now carefully orchestrated to convey essential qualities of character and outlook. In 1649 Rembrandt began a relationship with Hendrickje Stoffels that was to last until her death in 1663. Rembrandt's heavy expenses and debts compelled him to declare bankruptcy in 1656, after which his financial affairs were managed by Titus and Hendrickje. His work in the 1650s is highlighted by a series of masterful self-portraits that mark perhaps the high point of achievement in that particular genre of Western painting. The artist took his own visage as the hallmark of tragic resignation to life's misfortunes. In these late works he used thick, carefully built-up impastos and multiple glazes of transparent colour to communicate the palpable physical reality of the human form, minutely reproducing every wrinkle and indentation of the flesh, every gleam and highlight of clothing, armour, and jewelry. His formal portraits communicate the qualities of wisdom and moral stamina that Rembrandt saw as the enduring traits of human character. In his later depictions of Biblical subjects, Rembrandt used his complete mastery of the technical aspects of his craft to express such intangible values as humility, love, and the philosophical acceptance of human frailty. The death of his son Titus in 1668 was followed by the aging Rembrandt's own death the following year. Although he died in comparative obscurity, Rembrandt's reputation began to revive in the 18th century, and it continued to rise until, in the late 20th century, he was regarded as one of the greatest painters in history. Major Works: Paintings Portraits Self Portrait (c. 1628; Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam); Self-Portrait (1629; Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston); Old Woman Praying (c. 1630; Residenz Gallery, Salzburg, Austria); Old Man with a Gold Chain (c. 1631; Art Institute of Chicago); Nicolaes Ruts (1631; Frick Collection, New York City); Amalia van Solms (1632; Jacquemart-Andr Museum, Paris); Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp (1632; Mauritshuis, The Hague); Marten Looten (1632; Los Angeles County Museum of Art); Johannes Uytenbogaert (1633; private collection, England); Johannes Elison (1634; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston); Saskia as Flora (1634; Hermitage, St. Petersburg); Saskia in Profile (c. 1634; State Art Collections, Kassel, Ger.); Rembrandt and Saskia as the Prodigal Son (c. 163536; Picture Gallery, Dresden, Ger.); Andries de Graeff (1639; State Art Collections, Kassel); SelfPortrait (1640; National Gallery, London); Cornelis Anslo and Aeltje Schouten (1641; Picture Gallery, Dahlem Museums, Berlin); The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq (Night Watch, 1642; Rijksmuseum); Self-Portrait (1652; Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna); Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Jan Deyman (1656; Rijksmuseum); Self-Portrait (1658; Frick Collection); Self-Portrait as the Apostle Paul (1661; Rijksmuseum); Self-Portrait (c. 166162; The Iveagh Bequest, Kenwood House, London); Syndics of the Drapers' Guild (De Staalmeesters, 1662; Rijksmuseum); The Jewish Bride (c. 1664; Rijksmuseum); Gerard de Lairesse (1665; Lehman Collection, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City); Jeremias de Decker (1666; Hermitage); Family Group (c. 166668; Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum, Braunschweig, Ger.); Laughing Self-Portrait (c. 166869; Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne); Self-Portrait (1669; National Gallery, London); Self-Portrait (1669; Mauritshuis). Religious paintings Stoning of St. Stephen (1625; Museum of Fine Arts, Lyon); Balaam's Ass and the Angel (1626; Cognacq-Jay Museum, Paris); Baptism of the Eunuch (1626; St. Catherine's Convent National Museum, Utrecht, Neth.); Presentation in the Temple (c. 162728; Hamburg Gallery); Christ at Emmaus (c. 1628; Jacquemart-Andr Museum); Capture of Samson (c. 1628; Picture Gallery, Dahlem Museums); Judas Returning the Thirty Pieces of Silver (1629; private collection, England); Raising of Lazarus (c. 1630; Los Angeles County Museum of Art); Jeremiah Lamenting the Destruction of Jerusalem (1630; Rijksmuseum); Raising of the Cross (c. 1633; Alte Pinakothek, Munich); Descent from the Cross (c. 1633; Alte Pinakothek); Christ Before Pilate (1634; National Gallery, London); John the Baptist Preaching (c. 1634; Picture Gallery, Dahlem Museums); Belshazzar's Feast (c. 1635; National Gallery, London); Sacrifice of Isaac (1635; Hermitage); Sacrifice of Isaac (1636; Alte Pinakothek); Holy Family with Angels (1645; Hermitage); Christ at Emmaus (1648; Louvre, Paris); Bathsheba (1654; Louvre); Jacob Blessing the Sons of Joseph (1656; State Art Collections, Kassel); Peter Denying Christ (1660; Rijksmuseum); Return of the Prodigal Son (Hermitage). History and mythology Palamedes Before Agamemnon (1626; Municipal Museum [De Lakenhal], Leiden, Neth.); Andromeda (c. 1630; Mauritshuis); Pluto and Proserpina (c. 1632; Picture Gallery, Dahlem Museums); Rape of Europa (c. 1632; private collection, New York City); Rape of Ganymede (1635; Picture Gallery, Dresden); Dana (1636; Hermitage); Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer (1653; Metropolitan Museum of Art); Conspiracy of Julius Civilis (c. 166162; National Museum, Stockholm); Homer (1661/63; Mauritshuis); Lucretia (1664; National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.); Lucretia (1666; Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minnesota). Landscapes Landscape with Storm (c. 1638; Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum, Braunschweig, Ger.); Landscape with Good Samaritan (1638; Czartoryski Collection, Krakw, Pol.); Landscape with a Stone Bridge (c. 1638; Rijksmuseum); Mill (c. 1650; National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.); Winter Landscape (c. 1650/55; State Art Collections, Kassel). Genre, figures Music Lesson (1626; Rijksmuseum); Young Painter in the Studio (c. 1629; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston); Woman Bathing (Hendrickje Stoffels?) (1655; National Gallery, London). Etchings Self-Portrait (1629); Raising of Lazarus (c. 1632); Descent from the Cross (1633); Annunciation to the Shepherds (1634); Johannes Uytenbogaert (1635); Christ Before Pilate (1636); Menasseh ben Israel (1636); Self-Portrait with Saskia (1636); Self-Portrait (1639); Cornelis Anslo (1641); Skyline with Amsterdam (c. 1641); Windmill (1641); Three Trees (1643); Johannes Cornelisz. Sylvius (1646); Jan Asselijn (c. 1647); Ephraim Bonus (1647); Jan Six (1647); Self-Portrait by a Window (1648); Christ Healing the Sick (The Hundred Guilder Print) (c. 164349); Goldweigher's Field (1651); Clement de Jonghe (1651); Christ Preaching (c. 1652); Three Crosses (1653ff); Adoration of the Shepherds (c. 1652/54); Entombment (c. 1654); Descent from the Cross (c. 1654); Christ Presented to the People (1655ff); Abraham Francen (c. 1657). Drawings Self-Portrait (c. 162728; British Museum, London); Seated Old Man (c. 1631; Print Room, Dahlem Museums); Woman Bathing (c. 1631; British Museum); Saskia Looking out of a Window (c. 1635; Boymans-van Beuningen Museum, Rotterdam); Study After Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper' (c. 1635; British Museum); Woman Carrying Child (c. 1636; Pierpont Morgan Library, New York City); Saskia in Bed (c. 163538; State Graphics Collection, Munich); Rear View of Woman in North Holland Costume (c. 1638; Teylers Museum, Haarlem, Neth.); Portrait of Titia van Uylenburg (1639; National Museum, Stockholm); Youth Pulling a Rope (c. 1645; Rijksmuseum); Standing Male Nude (c. 1646; Albertina, Vienna); View of River IJ near Amsterdam (c. 164950; Chatsworth Settlement); View of Amstel River (c. 164850; Print Room, Rijksmuseum); View of Haarlem (c. 1651; Boymans-van Beuningen Museum); Lion (c. 165052; Louvre); Ruins of Old Town Hall in Amsterdam (1652; Rembrandt House Museum, Amsterdam); Four Orientals Beneath a Tree (c. 1655; British Museum); Sleeping Woman (c. 1655; British Museum); Woman at Window (c. 1655; Louvre); Nathan Admonishing David (c. 165556; Metropolitan Museum of Art); Row of Windmills (c. 1655; Print Collection, State Art Museum, Copenhagen); Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Jan Deyman (c. 1656; Print Room, Rijksmuseum); Portrait of a Man (c. 165560; Louvre); Female Nude on a Stool (c. 1658; Art Institute of Chicago); Christ on the Mount of Olives (c. 165658; Hamburg Gallery); Study for the Conspiracy of Julius Civilis (1661; State Graphics Collection, Munich).

Britannica English vocabulary.      Английский словарь Британика.