component country of the United Kingdomwith England, Wales, and Northern Irelandand the most northerly of the four. It occupies about one-third of the island of Great Britain. It is bounded by England in the south and on the other three sides by sea: the Atlantic Ocean on the west and north and the North Sea on the east. For current history and for statistics on society and economy, see Britannica Book Of The Year. most northerly of the four parts of the United Kingdom, occupying about one-third of the island of Great Britain. It is bounded by England to the south, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and north, and the North Sea to the east. The west coast is fringed by deep indentations (sea lochs or fjords) and by numerous islands, varying in size from mere rocks to the large landmasses of Lewis and Harris, Skye, and Mull. The island clusters of Orkney and Shetland lie to the north. At its greatest length, measured from Cape Wrath to the Mull of Galloway, the mainland of Scotland extends 274 miles (441 km), while the maximum breadth, measured from Applecross, in the western Highlands, to Buchan Ness, in the eastern Grampian Mountains, is 154 miles (248 km). But, because of the deep penetration of the sea in the sea lochs and firths (estuaries), most places are within 40 to 50 miles (65 to 80 km) of the sea, and only 30 miles (50 km) of land separate the Firth of Clyde and the Firth of Forth, the two great estuarine inlets on the west and east coasts, respectively. The name Scotland derives from the Latin Scotia, land of the Scots, a Celtic people from Ireland who settled on the west coast of Great Britain about the 5th century AD. The name Caledonia has often been applied to Scotland, especially in poetry. It is derived from Caledonii, the Roman name of a tribe in the northern part of what is now Scotland. The kingdom of the Scots gradually gained control over neighbouring peoples until, by the 11th century, it ruled over roughly the country's modern mainland area. Medieval struggles for independence from England were successful, but in 1603 the king of Scots also became king of England, and in 1707 Scotland's Parliament was joined to that of England. Thus, Scotland did not have a separate legislature or executive from 1707 to 1999, when a new Scottish Parliament restored a degree of political autonomy. Yet Scotland has always had a separate local administration, and certain important aspects of national life have been preserved since the Act of Union of 1707, notably Scotland's radically different legal and educational systems and its Presbyterian national church. The central British government has retained authority in many other matters, including foreign relations. Above all, Scotland has retained much of its cultural identity. Superficially, the external perception of this may descend to an image of tartan-clad Highlanders in mist-enshrouded castles, looking backward in history to bloody battles and romantic tales. But the tenacity of native culture has a deeper reality: in political and social attitudes distinct from those south of the border, in the strength of Scottish literature (still flourishing in three languagesEnglish, Gaelic, and Scots), and in a musical and folktale tradition that survives to the present day. Many Scots have emigrated over the centuries, and millions of Scottish descent in other countries have kept these traditions alive through the generations. Area 30,421 square miles (78,789 square km). Pop. (1999 est.) 5,119,200. Additional reading Geography A good modern review of the geography of Scotland is Chalmers M. Clapperton (ed.), Scotland: A New Study (1983). W.H. Murray, The Hebrides, new and rev. ed. (1975), and The Companion Guide to the West Highlands of Scotland: The Seaboard from Kintyre to Cape Wrath, 7th ed. (1977, reprinted 1985), are informative regional accounts. F. Fraser Darling and J. Morton Boyd, The Highlands and Islands, 2nd ed. (1969, reissued 1989); J.B. Whittow, Geology and Scenery in Scotland (1977); and Gordon Y. Craig (ed.), Geology of Scotland, 3rd ed. (1991), are written with impressive authority.For the economy, a useful account is Keith P.D. Ingham and James Love (eds.), Understanding the Scottish Economy (1983). An accessible contemporary account can be found in Jeremy Peat and Stephen Boyle, An Illustrated Guide to the Scottish Economy, ed. by Bill Jamieson (1999). W.H. Marwick, A Short History of Labour in Scotland (1967), analyzes trade unions; and the role of the Scottish Trades Union Congress is discussed in Keith Aitken, The Bairns O'Adam: The Story of the STUC (1997). Key statistics on the Scottish economy are available in publications from the Scottish Executive, including the Scottish Abstract of Statistics (annual); Scotland: An Economic Profile, 2nd ed. (1991); Regional Trends (annual); Scottish Economic Bulletin (biennial); and the Scottish Economic Report (semiannual). Additional data can be found in publications from the Fraser of Allander Institute at the University of Strathclyde, including the Quarterly Economic Commentary.For a survey of politics, see James G. Kellas, Modern Scotland, 2nd ed. (1980), and The Scottish Political System, 4th ed. (1989). The home rule debate has inspired a prolific literature, including Jack Brand, The National Movement in Scotland (1978); H.J. Hanham, Scottish Nationalism (1969); and Christopher Harvie, Scotland and Nationalism: Scottish Society and Politics, 1707 to the Present, 3rd ed. (1998). Governmental issues are surveyed in The Scottish Government Yearbook (197892); and in its successor, Scottish Affairs (quarterly); and in John S. Gibson, The Thistle and the Crown: A History of the Scottish Office (1985). More recent accounts of Scottish politics are Andrew Marr, The Battle for Scotland (1992, reissued 1995); Lindsay Paterson, The Autonomy of Modern Scotland (1994); Alice Brown, David McCrone, and Lindsay Paterson, Politics and Society in Scotland, 2nd ed. (1998); Alice Brown et al., The Scottish Electorate: The 1997 General Election and Beyond (1999); and Brian Taylor, The Scottish Parliament (1999). Michael C. Meston, W. David H. Sellar, and Lord Cooper (Cooper of Culross, Thomas Mackay Cooper), The Scottish Legal Tradition, new enlarged ed., edited by Scott Crichton Styles (1991); and Scottish Law Commission, The Legal System of Scotland, 3rd ed. (1981), are brief introductions to Scottish law. Trends in health care are outlined in Health in Scotland (annual); and Scottish Health Statistics (annual). Urban and rural planning issues are discussed in Roderick Macdonald and Huw Thomas (eds.), Nationality and Planning in Scotland and Wales (1997).The national cultural heritage is explored in diverse works, including David Daiches (ed.), A Companion to Scottish Culture (1981), a comprehensive reference source; John Telfer Dunbar, History of Highland Dress: A Definitive Study of the History of Scottish Costume and Tartan, Both Civil and Military, Including Weapons, 2nd ed. (1979); Robert Bain, The Clans and Tartans of Scotland, 5th ed., enlarged and ed. by Margaret O. MacDougall (1976, reprinted 1981); Francis Collinson, The Traditional and National Music of Scotland (1966); J.F. Flett and T.M. Flett, Traditional Dancing in Scotland (1964, reissued 1985); Jenny Carter and Janet Rae, Chambers Guide to Traditional Crafts of Scotland (1988); John G. Dunbar, The Architecture of Scotland, 2nd rev. ed. (1978); James L. Caw, Scottish Painting, Past and Present, 16201908 (1908, reprinted 1975); William Hardie, Scottish Painting 18371939, 2nd ed. (1980); Edward Gage, The Eye in the Wind: Scottish Painting Since 1945 (1977); Roderick Watson, The Literature of Scotland (1984); Cairns Craig (ed.), The History of Scottish Literature, 4 vol. (198789); Trevor Royle, The Macmillan Companion to Scottish Literature (1983, reprinted 1985); and David Hutchison, The Modern Scottish Theatre (1977). Alice Brown History General histories include Rosalind Mitchison, A History of Scotland, 2nd ed. (1982); Michael Jenner, Scotland Through the Ages (1987); and Gordon Donaldson, Scotland: The Shaping of a Nation, 2nd rev. ed. (1980). Early periods are studied in W. Croft Dickinson, Scotland from the Earliest Times to 1603, 3rd rev. ed., edited by Archibald A.M. Duncan (1977); and Derick S. Thomson, The Companion to Gaelic Scotland (1983). The following are more specialized histories: R.A. Houston and I.D. Whyte (eds.), Scottish Society, 15001800 (1988); T.C. Smout, A History of the Scottish People, 15601830 (1969, reprinted 1985), and A Century of the Scottish People, 18301950 (1986); R.H. Campbell, The Rise and Fall of Scottish Industry, 17071939 (1980); and I.G.C. Hutchison, A Political History of Scotland, 18321924: Parties, Elections, and Issues (1986). John M. Simpson The Editors of the Encyclopdia Britannica Administration and social conditions Government British central government Scotland is represented in the central government at Westminster by 72 members of Parliament in the House of Commons, elected by plurality votes from single-member constituencies, and all Scottish appointive (life) peers are entitled to sit in the House of Lords. As part of the United Kingdom, Scotland remains subject to Parliament in the areas of foreign affairs, foreign trade, defense, the national civil service, economic and monetary policy, social security, employment, energy regulation, most aspects of taxation, and some aspects of transport. Representing Scotland in these matters is a parliamentary cabinet among whose members are the secretary of state for Scotland. Scottish government Historically, the British central government and its Scottish Office, headed by Scotland's secretary of state, were the sole legislative and executive authorities for Scotland. In 1997 a majority of the Scottish electorate approved a referendum for the creation of the Scottish Parliament, which assumed power in 1999. The Scottish Parliament has wide powers over such matters as health, education, housing, regional transport, the environment, and agriculture. It also has limited power to increase or decrease the British income tax rate within Scotland. Members of the Scottish Parliament are chosen under a system of proportional representation. The leading parliamentary party appoints the Scottish Executive, the administrative arm of the government, which is headed by a first minister.
Meaning of SCOTLAND in English
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