Meaning of 'UD in English


also spelled Oud, stringed musical instrument prominent in medieval and modern Islamic music. It was the parent of the European lute. The 'ud has a deep, pear-shaped body; a fretless fingerboard; and a relatively shorter neck and somewhat less acutely bent-back pegbox than the European lute. The tuning pegs are set in the sides of the pegbox. The gut strings, plucked with a plectrum, are fastened to a tension (guitar-type) bridge on the instrument's belly. The 'ud is not completely standardized in size or number of strings. Four pairs of strings (the classical number) are common, although five and six pairs are also found. Tunings vary; the pitch range is similar to that of a lute or guitar. The 'ud is known in Turkey as the lauta and in the Balkans as the oud or uti. The kuwitra, a longer necked, narrower variety, is common in North Africa. The 'ud appeared in medieval Persia as the barbat in the 7th century AD. Its name, 'ud (Arabic: wood), refers to its aloe wood belly, in contrast to the skin bellies of earlier lutes. Originally, it had a tapered body of one piece with a neck and two crescent-shaped sound holes, much like some East Asian lutes, suggesting a common West Asian origin. In Andalusia during the Muslim occupation of Spain (7111492) the present form probably emerged, with a separate neck and round sound hole with a wooden rose (three sound holes are now common). Some medieval theorists mention the frets of the 'ud when discussing the proper note intervals of the maqamat, or melodic modes. Surviving pictures of the 'ud show no frets, but it is possible that both fretted and unfretted types were used.

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