Meaning of UTKAL PLAINS in English

UTKAL PLAINS

coastal plains in eastern Orissa state, eastern India. Extending over approximately 16,000 sq mi (41,400 sq km) and fronting the Bay of Bengal on the east, the plains are bounded by the Tamilnad Plain on the south, the Lower Ganges Plain on the north, and the Eastern Ghats on the west. The Utkal Plains are coastal lowlands consisting chiefly of Mahanadi Delta deposits and marine sediments, and they merge with the Eastern Ghats at an elevation of about 250 ft (76 m). The plains have a nearly straight shoreline. Buddhism flourished in the Utkal Plains in the 3rd century AD under Asoka, and the region is described in the rock edicts of Dhauli as forming part of the ancient Kalinga territory. Successive ancient dynasties including the Satavahanas, Karas, and Eastern Gangas ruled the region until, in the latter half of the 16th century, it passed to the Muslims and later to the Marathas. The British assumed control of the plains in 1804. Comprised of recent and Tertiary alluvium, with patches of Archaeon gneiss and sandstone, the plains are widest in the deltaic regions. Sand dunes of decomposed granites and zircon, created mainly by the action of wind at low tide, and lagoons are found along the Bay of Bengal. Chilka, the largest lake in the region (in the southwest), is salty; Samang and Sur (north and northeast of Puri, respectively) are freshwater lakes. Littoral forests are found along the coast of Cuttack and Balasore districts, and tropical moist deciduous forests are found inland throughout Puri and Cuttack districts. The Mahanadi, Brahmani, Baitarani, and Subarnarekha rivers are often subject to heavy flooding; the combined outflow of these rivers has formed the Mahanadi Delta in the northern part of the plains. The region has fertile red and black soils. Agriculture is the main occupation, and rice is the principal crop; pulse (legumes) and oilseeds are also grown. Major irrigation projects located in the plains permit double cropping. Industry, centred in urban areas such as Cuttack, Bhubaneswar, and Puri along the CalcuttaMadras railway, includes paper mills, refrigerator plants, and the production of ceramics, glass, refractories, textiles, and galvanized pipe. The plains have a network of roads and railways, inland waterways in Cuttack district, and an airfield at Bhubaneswar.

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