Meaning of VANITAS in English

(Latin: vanity), in art, an important type of still-life painting that flourished in the Netherlands in the early 17th century, consisting of collections of objects symbolic of the inevitability of death and the transience and vanity of earthly achievements and pleasures; a vanitas painting exhorts the viewer to consider mortality and to repent. The vanitas evolved from simple pictures of skulls and other symbols of death and transience frequently painted on the reverse sides of portraits during the late Renaissance. It had acquired an independent status by about 1550, and by 1620 had become a very popular genre. Its development until its decline in about 1650 was centred in Leiden, in the United Provinces of the Netherlands, an important seat of Calvinist learning, with its emphasis on man's sinfulness and its rigid moral code. Although a few vanitas pictures include figures, the vast majority are pure still lifes, containing certain standard elements: symbols of arts and sciences (such as books, maps, and musical instruments), wealth and power (such as purses and jewelry), and earthly pleasures (such as goblets, pipes, and playing cards); symbols of death or transience (such as skulls, clocks, burning candles, soap bubbles, and flowers); and, sometimes, symbols of resurrection and eternal life (usually ears of corn or sprigs of ivy or laurel). The earliest vanitas pictures were sombre, somewhat monochromatic compositions of great power, containing only a few objects, usually books and a skull, executed with elegance and precision. As the century progressed, other elements were included, the mood lightened, and the palette became diversified. Objects were often tumbled together in disarray, suggesting the eventual overthrow of the achievements they represent. In later paintings the standard subject matter of the vanitas theme became largely a pretext for meticulous virtuosity in the rendering of varied textures and surfaces, but the artistic quality of the genre in no sense declined. Several of the greatest Dutch still-life painters, including David Bailly, Jan Davidsz de Heem, Willem Claesz Heda, Pieter Potter, and Harmen and Pieter van Steenwyck, were masters of the vanitas still life, and the influence of the genre can be seen in the iconography and technique of other contemporary painters, including Rembrandt.

Britannica English vocabulary.      Английский словарь Британика.