Meaning of VOLTAIRE in English

born Nov. 21, 1694, Paris, France died May 30, 1778, Paris Voltaire, bronze by Jean-Antoine Houdon. In the Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia. pseudonym of Franois-Marie Arouet one of the greatest of all French writers. Although only a few of his works are still read, he continues to be held in worldwide repute as a courageous crusader against tyranny, bigotry, and cruelty. His writing embodies characteristic qualities of the French minda critical capacity, wit, and satire. His whole work vigorously propagates an ideal of progress to which men of all nations have remained responsive. His long life spanned the last years of classicism and the eve of the revolutionary era, and during this age of transition his works and activities influenced the direction taken by European civilization. born Nov. 21, 1694, Paris, France died May 30, 1778, Paris pseudonym of Franois-marie Arouet one of the greatest 18th-century European authors, remembered as a crusader against tyranny and bigotry and noted for his wit, satire, and vigorous critical capacity. A treatment of Voltaire follows. For full treatment, see Voltaire. Born of middle-class parents and educated by the Jesuits at the college of Louis-le-Grand in Paris, Voltaire studied law for a time but abandoned it to become a writer. He made his name with classical tragedies and continued to write for the theatre all his life. Voltaire's epic poem La Henriade was well-received, but his lampoons of the Regency and his liberal religious opinions caused offense. He was imprisoned in the Bastille for nearly a year (1717), and in 1726 he was driven into exile in England, where his philosophical interests deepened. Following his return to France, in 1728 or 1729, Voltaire continued to write plays, and his histories-Charles XII (1731) and Le Sicle de Louis XIV (1751)-marked new departures for him and for historiography. After publication in 1734 of the Lettres philosophiques, in which he spoke out against established religious and political systems, Voltaire fled from Paris and settled at Cirey in Champagne with Madame du Chtelet, who became his patroness and mistress. At Cirey, Voltaire turned to scientific research. He also began to work systematically on the study of religions and culture. In 1750, Voltaire accepted an invitation from Frederick II of Prussia to go to Berlin. In 1754 he purchased a house in Geneva and, four years later, settled at Ferney in France, near the Swiss border. He returned to Paris shortly before his death in 1778. In addition to his many works on philosophical and moral problems, Voltaire wrote several contes ("tales"), including Micromgas (1752), Zadig (1747), and Candide (1758), a satire on philosophical optimism that became his best-known work. He kept up an immense correspondence and took an interest in any cases of injustice-especially resulting from religious prejudice-that came to his notice. Additional reading Life Gustave Desnoiresterres, Voltaire et la socit au XVIII sicle, 2nd ed., 8 vol. (1871-76, reprinted 1967), is a narrative work that was the basis for most later Voltaire biographies but is outdated now because of the numerous documents discovered since its original publication; Theodore Besterman, Voltaire, 3rd rev. ed. (1976), offers a thorough, informed life story that is characterized by the author's full agreement with the views of Voltaire himself; Ira O. Wade, The Intellectual Development of Voltaire (1969), is another broad-ranging, scholarly biography; A. Owen Aldridge, Voltaire and the Century of Light (1975), examines both the life and works; John E.N. Hearsey, Voltaire (1976), provides a highly readable introductory survey of important events of Voltaire's life; Jean Orieux, Voltaire (1979; originally published in French, 1966), is a detailed biographical account by a French historian, written in the tradition of Desnoiresterres; Peyton Richter and Ilona Ricardo, Voltaire (1980), is a short work that introduces the general reader to Voltaire; and Haydn Mason, Voltaire: A Biography (1981), is a scholarly study that places particular emphasis on the philosopher's later years and serves as a companion to Mason's critical survey of Voltaire's work, cited below.Wayne Andrews, Voltaire (1981), provides a well-researched biography with a discussion of Voltaire's social and literary contacts; and Jean Mohsen Fahmy, Voltaire et Paris (1981), explores his Parisian life at different periods. Social and literary contacts and associates are studied in Paul O. LeClerc, Voltaire and Crbillon Pre: History of an Enmity (1973); and Christiane Mervaud, Voltaire et Frdric II: une dramaturgie des lumires, 1736-1778 (1985). Voltaire and the English (1979) is a collection of scholarly articles, with an illustrated catalog of a documents exhibition on Voltaire's journeys and the intellectual influences stemming from them. English literary and social influences are also studied in Ahmad Gunny, Voltaire and English Literature (1979). Russian influences and Voltaire's place in Russian historiography are explored in Carolyn H. Wilberger, Voltaire's Russia: Window on the East (1976). Voltaire's temperament and personality are studied in Norman L. Torrey, The Spirit of Voltaire (1938, reprinted 1968); and R.S. Ridgway, Voltaire and Sensibility (1973). Nancy Mitford, Voltaire in Love (1957, reissued 1985); and Samuel Edwards, The Divine Mistress (1970), are substantial histories of Voltaire's involvement with Mme du Chtelet, who greatly influenced both his work and his life. Views Ren Pomeau, La Religion de Voltaire, rev. ed. (1969, reissued 1974), examines the religious beliefs of Voltaire within the intellectual background of the 18th century, concluding that he was indeed a deist; other studies of Voltaire's views on religion and religious matters include John Renwick, Marmontel, Voltaire, and the Blisaire Affair (1974); Richard A. Brooks, Voltaire and Leibniz (1964); William H. Trapnell, Christ and His "Associates" in Voltairian Polemic: An Assault on the Trinity and the Two Natures (1982), and Voltaire and the Eucharist (1981); R.E. Florida, Voltaire and the Socinians (1974); Graham Gargett, Voltaire and Protestantism (1980); David D. Bien, The Calas Affair: Persecution, Toleration, and Heresy in Eighteenth-Century Toulouse (1960, reprinted 1979), on Voltaire's intervention in a case of religious persecution; and Bertram Eugene Schwarzbach, Voltaire's Old Testament Criticism (1971).For political and social views, see Henry Meyer, Voltaire on War and Peace (1976); and Peter Gay, Voltaire's Politics: The Poet as Realist, 2nd ed. (1988), dealing with Voltaire's politics in relation to England, France, Prussia, Russia, and Geneva and relating his ideas for social reform directly to events in 18th-century Europe. A.J. Ayer, Voltaire (1986), assesses him as a historian and dramatist, with a focus on his religious and philosophical arguments. Patrick Henry, Voltaire and Camus: The Limits of Reason and the Awareness of Absurdity (1975), is a study of Voltaire's interpretation of the philosophical categories of rationalism and absurdity. Critical studies Virgil W. Topazio, Voltaire: A Critical Study of His Major Works (1967), analyzes the thought and work of Voltaire the storyteller, historian, playwright, and philosopher. J.H. Brumfitt, Voltaire, Historian (1958, reprinted 1985), studies the principal features of his historical works and the theories behind them. Other introductions to Voltaire's criticism, analyzing selections of representative works without detailed exploration of individual ones, include Theodore Besterman, Voltaire Essays, and Another (1962, reprinted 1980); William F. Bottiglia (ed.), Voltaire: A Collection of Critical Essays (1968); R.H. Howells et al. (eds.), Voltaire and His World (1985); Haydn Mason, Voltaire (1975); and Jean Sareil (ed.), Voltaire et la critique (1966), a collection of essays, both in English and in French, devoted to Voltaire as poet, historian, philosopher, storyteller, and propagandist. For separate analyses, in English, of major works, see Dennis Fletcher, Voltaire, Lettres Philosophiques (1986), a brief critical guide; and Geoffrey Murray, Voltaire's Candide: The Protean Gardener, 1755-1762 (1970).Voltaire as a playwright is studied in Jack Rochford Vrooman, Voltaire's Theatre: The Cycle from OEdipe to Mrope (1970); Robert L. Herbert, David, Voltaire, "Brutus," and the French Revolution (1972), an exploration of the political atmosphere at the time of the 1790 revival of Voltaire's play Brutus and its role in the French Revolution; Lilian Willens, Voltaire's Comic Theatre: Composition, Conflict, and Critics (1975); and Marie Wellington, The Art of Voltaire's Theatre: An Exploration of Possibility (1987). Fiction and poetry are discussed in Douglas A. Bonneville, Voltaire and the Form of the Novel (1976); Jacques Van Den Heuvel, Voltaire dans ses contes: De "Micromgas" "L'Ingnu," 3rd ed. (1982), a new interpretation of the stories, showing how Voltaire both revealed and resolved his inner conflicts in these stories; Carol Sherman, Reading Voltaire's Contes: A Semiotics of Philosophical Narration (1985); and Ralph Arthur Nablow, A Study of Voltaire's Lighter Verse (1974). Bibliographies A summary of scholarship on Voltaire is presented in Mary Margaret H. Barr, Century of Voltaire Study: A Bibliography of Writings on Voltaire, 1825-1925 (1929, reissued 1972), continued in her Quarante Annes d'tudes voltairiennes: bibliographie analytique des livres et articles sur Voltaire, 1926-1965 (1968). Since 1955 the Institut et Muse Voltaire, in Geneva, and the Voltaire Foundation, at the Taylor Institution in Oxford, Eng., have been publishing the multivolume series "Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century"; several works appear in the series each year, and many of the titles above belong to it. Ren Henry Pomeau The Editors of the Encyclopdia Britannica Major Works: Stories Les Voyages du baron de Gangan (1739; an earlier version of Micromgas, 1752); Zadig (1747; Eng. trans. by J. Butt, 1964); Vision de Babouc (1748); Candide (1759; Eng. trans. by J. Spencer, 1966, and by Robert M. Adams, 1966); Le Blanc et le noir (1764; The Two Genies, 1895); Jeannot et Colin (1764); La Princesse de Babylone (1768; Eng. trans. 1969); Le Taureau blanc (1774; Eng. trans. 1774-attributed to Jeremy Bentham). History Histoire de Charles XII (1731; Eng. trans. by C. Messiter, 1860); Le Sicle de Louis XIV (1751; Eng. trans. by J.H. Brumfitt, 1966); Histoire de l'empire de Russie sous Pierre le Grand (1759-63; Eng. trans. 1763); Prcis du sicle de Louis XV (1768; Eng. trans. 1774, 2 vol.). Philosophy Lettres philosophiques (1734); lments de la philosophie de Newton (1738; Eng. trans. 1738); Essai sur les moeurs (1756; Eng. trans. by Nugent, 1759); Dictionnaire philosophique (1764; Eng. trans. by H.I. Woolf, 1945); Philosophie de l'histoire (1765; Eng. trans. 1965). Plays Zare (1732; Eng. trans. by A. Wallace, 1854); Alzire (1736; Tragedy of Alzira, trans. by A. Hill, 1817); Mrope (1743; Eng. trans. by A. Hill, 1803). Other works La Henriade (1728; Eng. trans. by R.G. Macgregor, 1854), an epic poem. Editions Les Oeuvres compltes is an edition begun in 1968, directed first by Theodore Besterman, then by Giles Barber, with introductions and notes in English and French. Among the works published are 51 volumes of Voltaire's complete correspondence and related documents. Theodore Besterman also translated and edited selections of Voltaire's correspondence, such as The Love Letters of Voltaire to His Niece (1958). See also Theodore Besterman and Andrew Brown (eds.), Concordance to the Correspondence of Voltaire (1977).

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