Meaning of BY in English
1》 through the agency or means of.
↘indicating how something happens.
2》 indicating a quantity or amount, or the size of a margin.
↘identifying a parameter.
↘expressing multiplication, especially in dimensions.
3》 indicating the end of a time period.
4》 near to; beside.
↘past and beyond.
6》 according to.
7》 used in mild oaths: ~ God!
■ adverb so as to go past.
■ noun ( plural ~es ) variant spelling of ~e 1 .
~ and ~ before long.
~ the ~ (or ~e ) incidentally.
~ and large on the whole. [orig. in naut. use, describing the handling of a ship both to the wind and off it.]
~ way of see way .
OE bī , bi , be , of Gmc origin.
Concise Oxford English vocab. Сжатый оксфордский словарь английского языка. 2004