Meaning of BILE in English

BILE

noun

COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS

■ ADJECTIVE

increased

This was coupled with an increased faecal bile acid concentration and proportion of secondary faecal bile acids.

Nevertheless, we propose that the increased concentration of bile acids and increased daily excretion may predispose to the development of polyps.

Thus patients with significant bile acid malabsorption can be expected to have an increased production of bile acids.

Such diurnal variations may possibly explain why two of the patients showed increased bile acid synthesis but normal SeHCAT values.

Bile acid malabsorption and increased synthesis of bile acids were even detected in cholecystectomised patients without intestinal pathology.

secondary

This was coupled with an increased faecal bile acid concentration and proportion of secondary faecal bile acids.

Patients with established colorectal cancer showed increased proportions of secondary bile acids in their faeces.

Our own recent studies have shown an increased proportion of secondary biliary bile acids in patients with colorectal cancer.

total

Furthermore, the higher concentrations used in this study reflect total bile salt concentrations in human colon.

In contrast to fatty acids, the total bile acid concentration was hardly influenced by the different diets.

■ NOUN

acid

These findings would suggest that an interplay of various intraluminal factors, including bile acids themselves, may affect colonic function.

The bile acids are synthesized as excretory products of cholesterol catabolism and are composed of a carbon-24 steroid nucleus.

The SeHCAT test has made intestinal bile acid malabsorption much more easy to detect.

The role played by dietary fibre is of importance to this compartmentalisation because it binds bile acids .

Nevertheless, we propose that the increased concentration of bile acids and increased daily excretion may predispose to the development of polyps.

In the past, many patients were accepted for bile acid treatment without specific, gall stone related symptoms.

This inhibition is caused by the formation of insoluble precipitates of calcium, phosphate, and bile acid micelles.

Not all studies support a direct link between fat malabsorption and faecal bile acid losses.

bladder

Paired hepatic and gall bladder bile samples were collected from 10 patients with cholesterol gall stones and six patients without gall stones.

The composition of phospholipids in human hepatic and gall bladder bile has been studied by a number of investigators during recent years.

The concentrations of total lipid and protein in gall bladder bile were not significantly different between the two groups.

Recent evidence suggests, however, that nicotine inhibits gall bladder bile mucin concentration.

duct

According to our experience, the severity of bile duct injuries seems to be changed after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Linda suffers from biliary atresia, an abnormality in which the bile duct is blocked.

A straight 10 F endoprosthesis was used in the five patients with a bile duct stricture distal to the stones.

It has not yet been well defined, whether a similar approach is justified for bile duct injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

All four patients with complete bile duct transection were treated with a proximal hepaticojejunostomy with Roux-en-Y jejunal loop.

Laparotomy was carried out under ether anesthesia and cannulation of the bile duct was performed for continuous bile collection.

Our technique and results of endoscopic treatment of bile duct injury after open cholecystectomy have been described in detail elsewhere.

We have advocated initial endoscopic stenting for bile duct strictures after open cholecystectomy.

flow

The demonstration of a central stimulation of alkaline bile flow suggests that bile secretion may be subject to central modulation.

However, the lack of bile flow into the intestines will result in neither urobilinogen nor urobilin being found in the feces.

Centrally administered neuropeptide Y caused a dose-dependent increase in bile flow that was associated with an increase in biliary bicarbonate output.

salt

The release of colonic regulatory peptides by bile salts does make physiological sense.

Attempts to measure bile salts directly by continuous aspiration have produced conflicting results.

Studies in rats have shown that bile salts inhibit gastric emptying and prolongs intestinal transit time.

It has been reported that gastric infusion of bile salts in rats delays gastric emptying and inhibits small bowel transit time.

This mechanism might facilitate bile salt absorption into the enterohepatic circulation by slowing intestinal transit time.

In man portal venous bile salt concentrations increase from 22.2 µmol/l during fasting to 170 µmol/l after meals.

Aggressive factors include gastric juice and bile salts which can reflux back into the stomach.

It is therefore not unreasonable to propose that bile salts might be the inhibitory component in the venous effluent.

sample

Six patients, all with malignant strictures, had bile samples taken at both endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography.

Paired hepatic and gall bladder bile samples were collected from 10 patients with cholesterol gall stones and six patients without gall stones.

Whole bile samples were collected anaerobically and into sterile tubes.

The isotropic bile samples were subsequently used to measure the nucleation time and the relative distribution of vesicular cholesterol.

Part of the bile samples were frozen at -20°C until chemical analysis.

■ VERB

increase

Furthermore, dietary manipulation studies have shown that high fat intake can increase faecal bile acid excretion.

show

This study has shown that luminal bile directly inhibited terminal ileal motility.

Studies in rats have shown that bile salts inhibit gastric emptying and prolongs intestinal transit time.

Abdominal ultrasound imaging showed non-dilated bile ducts, several fluid collections, and guided puncture yielded bile.

Invitro studies have shown impairment of bile acid absorption in the ileal mucosa of patients with cystic fibrosis.

Ultrasound did not show dilated intrahepatic bile ducts.

Blood chemistry showed cholestatic liver enzymes and ultrasound showed dilated bile ducts.

Such diurnal variations may possibly explain why two of the patients showed increased bile acid synthesis but normal SeHCAT values.

Ultrasound scanning may show thickening of the bile ducts and less often provides evidence of bile duct stricturing and/or dilatation.

EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS

Daniel wanted to call out his shock, but the incoherent cry turned in his throat into a spurt of stomach bile .

Therefore, there is a back-up of bile into the sinusoids and an overflow into the blood.

These findings suggested that bile and taurodeoxycholic acid directly inhibited ileal motor activity.

This pattern will continue until the regurgitation of bile causes hepatocellular damage.

Whole bile samples were collected anaerobically and into sterile tubes.

Longman DOCE5 Extras English vocabulary.      Дополнительный английский словарь Longman DOCE5.