Meaning of EMPIRICAL in English




empirical data (= based on tests or experience, not on ideas )

The theory is supported by empirical data.

empirical evidence (= based on scientific testing or practical experience )

Where is the empirical evidence to back up these claims?




Primarily a political tract, it can in no sense be regarded as an empirical analysis of society.

A more reasonable view is that the law of demand is just fine, and the CardKrueger empirical analysis needs repairs.

An initial empirical analysis of national data series isolates and compares the cycles in different sectors.

There are perhaps two basic lines of attack: straight forward empirical analysis , and analysis-by-synthesis.

However, while the theoretical analyses yield precise predictions, these have not always been found in empirical analysis .

It belongs to no particular approach but is a means of linking theory with empirical analysis to the betterment of theory.


Let us look at the empirical approach in a concrete instance.

Britain and the United States, by contrast, are seen as the exemplars of an empirical approach .

Although more oriented toward an empirical approach , the United States has exhibited some elements of the rationalist.

Britain, by contrast, has a distinct orientation toward the empirical approach .


It is hoped that this work can contribute a better empirical basis to discussion about the adequacy of benefit levels.


The important thing is that the empirical data and the theorizing are connected, not separate, things.

Some empirical data compare levels of participation across many countries.

Little empirical data is available on the searching behaviour in B, the direct shelf approach.

One should be restrained by empirical data and learn from then.

Explanations of both phenomena remain partial and insufficiently grounded in theory empirical data .

Like Allen, I would urge you to provide a systematic review of the empirical data supporting your proposal.

For classifications involve considerations of reason and policy over and above mere empirical data .

Recommended changes had to be substantiated by explicit statements of rationale, supported by the systematic review of relevant empirical data .


This is consistent with empirical evidence reported in some studies.

From empirical evidence it seems that species that interact freely with others do so with a great number of other species.

Good classification should have well-defined categories into which empirical evidence can be organized.

It is a myth that is clinically naive and will not stand up in the face of empirical evidence .

There is, furthermore, substantial empirical evidence of variations in local policy outputs.

The available empirical evidence indicates that all three explanations have some validity.

The problems come when empirical evidence is turned into totalizing theory, tendential strategy into achieved fact.

Given the limited experience with actual personal expenditure taxation, empirical evidence is lacking.


It is an empirical fact that the higher the rate of inflation is, the more unpredictable it will be.

For a decade until the late 1930s, people could do no better than to regard the electron as an empirical fact .

Liberals may appreciate that conclusion, but it has little basis in empirical fact .


Pride of place in this endeavour was given to systematic and properly grounded empirical investigation .

The particular blend of instrumentality and expressiveness for given individuals is a matter for empirical investigation .

The second kind has to do with the conceptual coherence of the theory that the empirical investigation is designed to support.

The empirical investigations of Modigliani and Miller 2 were conducted on examples of oil and electric utility companies.

Patient and painstaking empirical investigation would reveal the optimum measure of reform.

What this means is that there is no way that any hypothesis drawn from Marxist theory can be disproved by empirical investigation .

Hannah was a thing to be explored, dissected through detailed empirical investigation .

However plausible this suggestion, empirical investigation has lent it no support.


They comment on, gloss, and interpret his writings, and spend too little time in empirical observation and investigation.

The choice of ordinate arises from the empirical observation that A2B 1 is required for chaos.

Both of these apparently contradictory statements are obviously true, but only at the level of empirical observation .

Within a short space of time, Labour's traditional approach based on careful empirical observation of issues was overwhelmed.


Whether leisure time increases or decreases as wage rates rise is an empirical question .

Some key conceptual and empirical questions that you might consider in assessing the validity of each approach are listed below.

These are not empirical questions to be resolved by the collection of data.

Again, this seems an empirical question , and it is raised again in chapter 7.

The strength and unity of the transnational capitalist class are, therefore, always open to empirical questions .

It is in large part an empirical question , and issues and studies bearing on the topic are considered in chapter 7.


While the former resists the comparison with an empirical reality the latter is epistemologically founded on such a comparison.

Only if this character is recognised will society be understood in terms that are adequate to its empirical reality .

What always seem to redeem Hughes is his attention to empirical realities .

A company that manufactures photocopiers obviously holds to a descriptive core belief consistent with this empirical reality .

The empirical realities to learn from would be cases.


The type of detailed empirical research reviewed above suggests that scepticism is to be strongly recommended.

By far the greatest amount of empirical research on democratic attitudes has been done in the United States.

Why does theorizing seem to be so much more prestigious than empirical research ?

Articles by well-known political scientists discuss the central concepts and recent empirical research in many important subfields.

They constitute no more than pointers towards an agenda for more detailed, empirical research .

In the 124 articles we found that were related to Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, we found 92 that included some empirical research .

In doing so I will be making frequent reference to the empirical research findings of criminologists working mostly in the positivist tradition.

But further empirical research has revealed considerable diversity in the roles of particular political structures.


Importantly, this provided him with the working-class raw material for his early empirical studies of language.

However, rigorous empirical studies have challenged such characterizations.

Poor delivery dates and servicing facilities are further factors to which empirical studies have attached major, even primary importance.

Now that you have considered these empirical studies , you should be more capable of undertaking your own study.

A large number of empirical studies have attempted to confirm this link.

There have been two important changes in the recent empirical studies of political participation.

Such empirical studies of the sensitivity of results will no doubt be further developed.

One obvious development is for the empirical studies to incorporate behavioural relationships.


Note the lack of direct empirical support and the abstract character of the argument.

Initially this was scoffed at as farfetched conjecture, but gradually it has received grudging respect and empirical support .

There is some empirical support for the proposition that the likelihood of attack decreases with size.

Although these types of theory are mutually incompatible, both regularly obtain empirical support in experiments by different researchers.

The theoretical arguments receive empirical support from private systems elsewhere.

He claims some empirical support for these predictions.


It is therefore in many ways an ideal empirical test bed for assessing the validity of Pahl's classification in the 1980s.

A recent empirical test of this hypothesis as applied to surgeons has provided support for it.

These are discovered in the empirical tests and economic interpretation and justification is supplied afterwards.

An empirical test of the relative decline of legislative power is especially difficult.

Therefore, I will perform an empirical test on the relationship in the latter part of the section.

The value of the hypothesis is that it leads to an empirical test .

Therefore, I perform an empirical test on the relationship.


How this study may contribute to theoretical and empirical work both on equal opportunities and the study of management and organisations.

It is not the purpose of this chapter to provide a comprehensive survey of the empirical work undertaken upon this topic.

The limited empirical work on the importance of uncertainty as a variable affecting investment decisions yields some support for this argument.

Two pairs of concepts have been elaborated in the light of empirical work conducted in actual curricular settings.

A related fundamental problem for empirical work in the elite theory tradition is the difficulty of demonstrating that a power relationship exists.

However, there seems to have been little empirical work done on such courses.

Philip Hanson's empirical work on international technology transfer laid bare the limitations of borrowing as a survival strategy.

In the absence of such empirical work , it is difficult to say much about it in sociological terms.


His theory is inconsistent with the empirical evidence.


A hypothesis should have an empirical referent. 3.

Allen also expressed concern about the empirical base for the category.

At the empirical level culture and nature can not be discriminated in this way.

Only if this character is recognised will society be understood in terms that are adequate to its empirical reality.

The theoretical and empirical relationships between the constructed measures will be explored.

Theoretical ideas are connected to the world by a translation into an empirical language more closely attuned to the observable world.

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