Meaning of LONG-TERM in English




a long-term decline (= happening for a long time )

The long-term decline in the manufacturing industry is still continuing.

a long-term goal (= that you hope to achieve after a long time )

The organization’s long-term goal is to gain a strong position in the European market.

a long-term impact

Scientists are calculating the long-term impact of the floods.

a long-term investment (= one that will give you profit after a long time )

Buying a house is a long-term investment.

a long-term relationship

I have a seven-year-old daughter from a previous long-term relationship.

a long-term solution (= one that will be effective for a long time )

A long-term solution to the problem will not be possible until that conflict is resolved.

a long-term strategy

The closure of these branches is part of our long-term strategy.

a long-term/abiding interest (= an interest you have had for a long time )

She has had a long-term interest in antiques.

a long-term/short-term loan (= to be paid back after a long/short time )

I intended the money as a short-term loan.

a long/long-term lease

We’re negotiating a long-term lease on the building.

long-term commitment

Having a child together involves a long-term commitment.

long-term consequences (= results that last a long time, or appear after a long time )

If you smoke it may have long-term consequences.

long-term memory (= your ability to remember things that happened a long time ago )

Most people's long-term memory is limited.

long-term survival

The long-term survival of polar bears is at risk.

long-term unemployment (= when people are unemployed for a long period of time )

It can be difficult to help people out of long-term unemployment.


Long-term planning centers on ensuring the future growth of the company.

long-term/regular employment (= working for the same company for a long time )

She finally found regular employment at a hospital in York.

short-term/long-term care

The home provides short-term care for elderly people.

the long-term answer

He believes hydrogen is the long-term answer to our growing energy crisis.

the long-term unemployed (= people who have not had a job for a long time )

a retraining scheme for the long-term unemployed

the long-term/short-term effect (= having an effect for a long or short time )

Many boxers suffer with the long-term effects of punches to the head.

the ultimate/eventual/long-term aim (= that you hope to achieve in the end )

The ultimate aim is to replace gasoline with non-polluting energy sources.

the underlying/long-term trend (= the trend over a long period of time )

The underlying trend is for rich economies to get richer.




The long-term aim of the naturalisation of economic relations was still central to Bukharin's view of socialism.

Our long-term aim is to change industry's perception of the mathematical sciences and to show the commercial benefits they can offer.

They provide a basis for evaluating shorter-term budgets and prevent long-term aims from being forced aside by short-term operational needs.

The group's long-term aim is to get into non-Bull sites to deliver its consultancy and networking services.

Gascoigne deduced disagreement over long-term aims between the War and State departments.

Returning to competitions should be a long-term aim , provided the physiotherapist and the carers feel it is realistic.


What we need is a stable economic climate that encourages companies to invest on a consistent, long-term basis .

People who succeed are eating less and exercising and doing it on a long-term basis ....

Women with severe emotional problems may need counselling on a long-term basis .

It aims to manage those resources in concert and on a long-term basis for the benefit of the local human population.


That has to be to the long-term benefit of the profession and of the wider community.

The long-term benefits are an earlier return to the international lending markets.

That would put people back to work and give long-term benefits to the economy.

This trend should be encouraged because of its immediate and long-term benefits . 4.

But doubts surround the long-term benefits .

Daily relaxation exercIses will enhance the benefit of the time allotted for a massage and contribute to the long-term benefits.

The therapist should also reward any positive changes by expressing satisfaction and by indicating their potential long-term benefits .

Theyor actually, their salaries and long-term benefits-look bad on the books.


Profits from long-term business under the accruals method totalled £738m, compared with £385m as previously reported.

Avon was compulsively focused on long-term business plans.

It is success for the second time for Mr Myers and his long-term business partner Karen Jones.

As all Hanson businesses are for sale at all times, why should headquarters asset-strip a good long-term business for short-term gain?

Experience of devising and managing short-and long-term business development strategies, setting and achievement of objectives, and budget management.

These are the same characteristics you get in our long-term business .


The aim of the new trust - which will have an initial ten-year life - will be long-term capital growth.

The Mercantile invests for long-term capital growth with emphasis on emerging companies worldwide.

The aim is to achieve a high level of income with the prospect of long-term capital growth.

There is a separate question of whether free flows of long-term capital can be encouraged while discouraging some short-term capital movements.

Correspondingly this affected the basic balance, i.e. the current balance plus the balance of long-term capital flow.

Added to an already heavy outflow of long-term capital , the flight of dollars became a rout.


Three of these decisions relate to, among other things, health authority provision of long-term care .

The suit further alleges that the sheik reneged on repeated oral pledges to provide for her long-term care .

This was an influential study which broadly supported the view that permanent substitute parents should be found for children in long-term care .

It would make long-term care insurance and expenses tax-deductible.

Insurance contracts for long-term care have recently been introduced to the market, and this will be an area of actuarial development.

And we have a very inadequate system for long-term care or assistance for people with chronic medical conditions.

It may have to be accepted that recurrent brief admissions are a necessary part of the long-term care of such a patient.

You can need long-term care because of a disabling accident or a chronic illness.


These examples are of short-term changes , and it may well be that long-term changes are even more marked.

Or I could make serious, long-term changes and hope to live to a ripe old age.

The air samples could give scientists vital information about long-term changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere.

Only the archaeologist can obtain that perspective, and hence seek some understanding of the processes of long-term change .

If long-term changes were taking place, the Commission's forests were not the place to look for them.

Short-term emergency measures perpetuated a division along social grounds that inhibited long-term change .

Maybe a more urgent question is how households are reorganising their economic activities as old industrial structures are modified by long-term change .

In particular, it will look at long-term changes which have affected the structure of jobs available to young people.


High quality programmes need long-term commitment and funding.

But in general it is only through love for specific children that a society evokes long-term commitments from its members.

This may mean you are ready to make a long-term commitment .

But its use still requires an enlightened management and a long-term commitment .

Over and above such dramatic ingredients of change and stress you probably have a long-term commitment which is stressful too.

I think that he accepts that that would constitute a long-term commitment , and a hazardous and dangerous one.

Space is an extreme example of the need for long-term commitments .

This often implied joint ventures and long-term commitment to projects.


But the long-term consequences of those decisions, as Britain is starting to discover, can be immense.

The programs with the best results warn students of the long-term consequences of drug use.

If they should start dying, the long-term consequences of the drought could be catastrophic.

But those who dismiss monogamy as a strategy fail to consider the long-term consequences of maintaining a culture of promiscuity.

Many victims also suffer the long-term consequences of smoking and alcohol.

Their feelings get hurt; they blame the other person and react without considering the long-term consequences .

A full consideration of long-term consequences must guide our decisions in future.

Decisions of this nature often have long-term consequences . 4.


Incomes policies eroded differentials, and trade union action was limited by long-term contracts .

Star players like Johnny Damon are traded because they refuse to sign long-term contracts .

This chapter will discuss the main long-term contracts which a potential recording artist is likely to sign.

Many trade union leaderships had become enmeshed in participation in incomes policies and arrangements for long-term contracts .

Occasionally long-term contracts have been used, but recent experience has shown them to be uncertain, given the volatility of currencies.

All of our artists are on long-term contracts .

Code language for a prominent leader bringing a business through a difficult period and offering a better long-term contract to employees.

They also both had long-term contracts to play Downton equipment worldwide.


This can have devastating consequences, and may cause long-term damage to the urinary tract.

Heating oil is highly toxic in the short term, but it evaporates quickly, reducing the long-term damage .

Indeed it is so severe that the fabric of the economy is beginning to suffer long-term damage .

Agriculture accounts for 50% of the long-term damage inflicted on these areas.

And nomatterhow fit you are, you're just as susceptible to the same long-term damage as the average couch potato.

However, the substances themselves only rarely cause long-term damage to the body.


The world's economic downturn has triggered a rash of defaults in commercial paper and long-term debt , particularly by unrated issuers.

My father knew that the coming revolution would settle his class's long-term debt to the peasantry.

One is to make maximum use of long-term debt , soas to avoid loan repayments before the project's completion.

This section lists long-term debt owed to banks or other creditors and any obligations under capital leases.

Net proceeds will be used to repay short and long-term debt , refinance long term debt and for working capital.

Detailed information relative to the specific characteristics of the long-term debt is disclosed in the footnotes to the financial statements.

The company is reasonably profitable and it has very little long-term debt .

The additional interest charged on long-term debt is a premium for lack of liquidity.


Prisons offer hundreds of new jobs and an influx of capital to areas faced with stagnation and long-term decline .

There has been no long-term decline in precipitation in the Himalaya.

However the long-term decline of the West Coast main line was not a prospect that InterCity was prepared to accept.

It too has suffered a long-term decline in the manufacturing industry combined with an accelerating boom in the service sector.

Firstly we called for a major and sustained programme of development within West Belfast in order to reverse the history of long-term decline .

Yet Labour still operated against a background of long-term decline .

In the 1920s the basic industries of coal, textiles and heavy engineering went into long-term decline .

But off-course betting is in long-term decline .


The impact on the long-term development of the world economy seems likely to be depressing.

What are the long-term developments that contribute to an event rather than cause it? 3.

Ross ever. the principle of nuclear engines was successfully tested and they remain good candidates for long-term development in interplanetary spacecraft.

Drastic changes, up or down, hamper longer-term development and can mean re-drafting the national budget at short notice.

The relationship between agency and client demands loyalty and long-term development .

I thought that was important for the long-term development of a band.

Mere survival apart, some artists need to finance projects which will help the long-term development of their work.


At four months old, he is apparently developing well, though I am still extremely worried about the possible long-term effects .

A follow-up study that looks at the long-term effects of transcendental meditation and muscle relaxation is expected to be completed in August.

I was interviewed recently and I mentioned the long-term effects of being asked about drugs in interviews.

Exposure to any of those poses risks, although the amounts involved and the long-term effects are still not clearly defined.

She agreed, though, that any chronic long-term effects of exposure to Galecron would not be picked up.

The net long-term effects may vary among the different programs, however.

But the long-term effect is that the economy at home will take off like a rocket in mid-1993.

Never mind that its long-term effects , if any, are unknown.


This means that fishing quotas are likely to fall in coming years in order to preserve the long-term future of the fisheries.

Since firms need to make profits in market economies, these projects have no long-term future .

In these circumstances the long-term future for mental health services in inner London was not good.

But what about the long-term future ?

Is not that the best investment that we can make in the long-term future for that troubled area?

That is the only long-term future for the coal industry.

Innovation and expansion have continued apace as manufacturers have no misgivings about the long-term future for clay roofing tiles.


It was the stage at which the 12 member states did a good deal more to clarify their long-term goals .

If both core beliefs and the actions they inspire are healthy, the organization will ultimately succeed in achieving its long-term goals .

Most can for simplicity sake be loosely classified as one of three types: fantasy goals , long-term goals and short-term goals.

That goal soon becomes many short-term and long-term goals.

As a long-term goal , she should be prepared for his discharge or possible death.

The long-term goal is to help your son or daughter enjoy mastering his or her own body.

With your long-term goal in mind, select a race on a date that allows you time to prepare thoroughly.

That night, together as a family, we wrote down a long-term goal that changed our lives.


A long-term growth pattern is displayed.

Company executives grumble that analysts are obsessed with short-term performance at the expense of long-term growth and profitability.

Risk of change in the expected rate of long-term growth of the economy.

For as we have already seen, the long-term growth rate of the United States has historically been well over 3 percent.

When spending power goes up relatively quickly the long-term growth in property crime slows down.

What is the likely impact of this shift on the long-term growth and profitability of the company? 4.

But the crisis follows long-term growth .

Gilroy is optimistic about long-term growth .


Are the long-term health risks of playing through injury explained to, and understood by, players?

It encourages discussion of important topics that are vital to the long-term health of our society.

Yet without fairly radical surgery, the long-term health of the company might have been in jeopardy.

Therefore, a continuous supply of newly fallen ancients is needed to maintain the long-term health and balanced composition of the forest.

A typical example of such a long-term health problem is arthritis.

The long-term health effects are not known.

But the mechanism's long-term health remains in doubt.

Such responses, even the tears, are positive and beneficial for one's long-term health .


Despite the Gulfs long history of oil pollution, little research has been done on the long-term impact on marine life there.

The long-term impact of such an approach can only be to reduce our competitiveness and erode our economic position.

This investigation indicates the long-term impact of indigenous farming systems on a tropical lake.

The long-term impact of the crisis will likely be determined by the outcome of the hostage crisis.

Based on actuarial calculations, such a step would not have a long-term impact on the provision for pensions, they claimed.

The long-term impact would no doubt be greater.

Perhaps one day an inspired current-affairs teacher will ask them about the long-term impact of the 1988 Education Act.

The Precautionary Principle suggests that we should do more to understand the long-term impacts before proceeding.


As a result of these expectations, funds flow from short-term markets to long-term markets, thereby driving down long-term interest rates.

Mr Ricchiuto predicts long-term interest rates will rise through the 7 % level this year.

And they have a long-term interest in maintaining industry's prosperity, for that is what pays their pensions.

They also expect long-term interest rates to fall further, which could bring mortgage rates below their current 7 percent level.

If the rise in long-term interest rates threatens economic recovery, then so does the sharp rally in the yen.

But Friday, long-term interest rates fell as investors focused primarily on the good inflation news.

Our objectives are to secure the long-term interests of the fishing industry by ensuring effective measures to secure stocks.

By that time, short-term interest rates had fallen below long-term interest rates.


The stock market is, by its very nature, a long-term investment .

Anyone with a stereo, home theater or computer should consider protecting that long-term investment with the O2 Blocker pads.

Short-term liquid assets are held for active trading purposes and for buying long-term investments .

Capital is making a very long-term investment in this area.

We feel that this may skew any long-term investment planning for sport.

The failure to index depreciation schedules for inflation is devastating for manufacturing and other industries that require long-term investments .

Education is a long-term investment - and all the more crucial for being so.

The Military Assistance Program of 1949 was, obviously, only a small down payment on a large long-term investment .


National development organizations and regional or international agencies sometimes offer long-term loans for certain classes of projects at low rates of interest.

The most obvious source of financing would be a long-term loan , with principal repayments beginning in 2002.

The application manages financial instruments, including treasury bills, short-, medium- and long-term loans and interest rate hedges.

Consequently, a nominal 60-year loan would in practice be made up of many short-, medium-, and long-term loans.

The World Bank provides long-term loans although at a market-related interest rate.

Most countries seek to preserve their international credit rating, as long-term loans are required to finance economic development.

We have been promised a grant of £1,000 from the Village Association, and a further long-term loan from them of £1,000.


It is suggested that the answer to ties comes straight from long-term memory .

They have major problems in forming new memories , as well as some difficulty with retrieving previously formed long-term memories.

Correspondingly acquisition is different from storage in that the latter implies a formal recording possibly in short-term or possibly in long-term memory .

A parallel but not identical distinction is between short-term and long-term memory .

Thus they have been re-encoded into long-term memory and this gives rise to the primacy effect.

It will include reasoning or thinking and might make considerable use of long-term memory or experience.

Most people's long-term memory is very limited when it comes to remembering specific points or ideas.


This is presumably not Clinton's intention, but illustrates short-term advantages taking precedence over long-term objectives .

Fallen beyond the banana-now time horizon, long-term objectives are forgotten.

This has both a short-term and a long-term objective .

That is not to stay that long-term objectives should not be considered in addition to the escape strategy that is being worked upon.

It is simply that long-term objectives do not constitute an escape strategy.

And last year I couldn't say well this is my long-term objective .

He gave few signs that radical social reform was his long-term objective .


They have realised the effectiveness of the step-by-step approach, the moderate image and the long-term plan .

Honda may get some small short-term positive publicity from its largesse, but that alone would hardly account for such long-term plans .

But while recommending such long-term plans , I must stress the need for flexibility.

A decision on whether to fund the project will be made next spring, as commissioners revise long-term plans .

Keep the balance; realize that relaxation is an essential part of your long-term plan .

She also suggested that the city develop a long-term plan for rebuilding after a disaster.

Mackintosh also has long-term plans to extend move into furniture design and manufacture.

Despite having over a year left on his contract, McHale told Foreman that he did not figure in his long-term plans .


Hence it was reluctant to take the unpopular measures deemed by some to be necessary to tackle Britain's long-term problems .

In most instances work inhibition is a long-term problem that parents have been trying to solve for years.

It should be stressed that this complication is rare, and only a minority of cases go on to develop long-term problems .

The main body of the plume registers over 100 parts per billion, high enough to cause long-term problems .

The overload of urgent daily business constantly distracts teachers in their attempts to step back to examine underlying causes and long-term problems .

In either case, subsidy will create more long-term problems than it can solve.

This had been the whole crux of Myra's long-term problem .

By 1987 there were clearly long-term problems emerging for the balance of payments.


So we have the financial security to meet our greatest challenge - developing long-term projects .

Management needs to ensure that the expensive and long-term project has a good strategic pay-off.

Relief schemes lead on to long-term projects , helping people to help themselves.

Other sponsorships could be for travel or study overseas or for specific research or a long-term project .


But as the number of machines in an economy is increased, so the long-term rate of profit is reduced.

Exhibit 9. 1 shows the so-called normal yield curve, where long-term rates are higher than short-term rates.

It is not an acceptable long-term rate , because of the damage it does to industry and homeowners.

In this case, short-term rates are higher than long-term rates.

A humped yield curve is explained by investors expecting short-term interest rates to rise and long-term rates to fall.

And if history is any guide, there is a better chance of long-term rates rising than falling by year-end 1996.

Such a rise in long-term rates sits oddly with still-scanty evidence of economic recovery.

Hence, long-term rates would be lower than short-term rates and the yield curve would be negative.


Loyal workers build long-term relationships with their customers.

People involved in any long-term relationship generally need some form of contract.

I also have a seven-year-old daughter from a previous long-term relationship .

Sandra joined the Nicholson crowd in the B-movie circle and was to become something of a model for future long-term relationships .

The opportunities for close, long-term relationships are greater than is usually the case in a large, metropolitan, residential area.

She was tall, dark-haired and strong-willed, characteristics which were largely repeated in all of Jack's long-term relationships .

By sharing the benefits and improvements openly with customers they hope to build the mutually beneficial long-term relationship which is their objective.

They all but destroyed the crucial long-term relationship between writer and editor.


The mining industry knows that its long-term security comes only from selling its product to customers at prices they can afford.

The point is that the threat of take-overs reduces the long-term security of employees and managers.


He said that the deportations could jeopardise international negotiations aimed at finding a long-term solution to the boat people problem.

Tulsa, however, has yet to devise a long-term solution to financing Career Partners Inc.

But it hardly offers a long-term solution to the problem of resource depletion.

But the only long-term solution is to rebuild your career and your life around strategies that work in a dejobbed environment.

Projects which tackle medical problems at their root and provide long-term solutions .

Griffen has promised a long-term solution that will reduce the presence of cars.

A long-term solution may be a radical reform of the Press Complaints Commission aimed at getting more informative, balanced reporting.

The long-term solution is to find alternative coolants, but that is proving difficult.


Michele Hanson examines the problems imposed by budget cuts and staff shortages, and looks at the need for long-term strategies .

I am optimistic, therefore, that they can serve as the basis for an effective Mega long-term strategy .

It is continuous, since it is a long-term strategy to enhance individual performance in the context of institutional objectives.

The central purpose is to hammer out long-term strategies for the nation as a whole.

Laing has never had any problems about getting to grips with long-term strategy .

The long-term strategy to combat knife crimes through schemes like Operation Blade is to achieve a change in the law.

In order to tackle the problem let us think of short-term and long-term strategy .


This example illustrates wonderfully how important long-term studies are - and how risky science can be!


This strategy may have the greatest potential for long-term success if the shoals can be navigated with success.

The advantages of long-term success versus short-term failure must be considered.

Government can not be indifferent to the long-term success of business.

This is both a blessing and a curse when it comes to cultivating long-term success .

Scepticism apart, much more important to Quorn's long-term success has to be its price.

Where ownership is not committed to long-term success , the prognosis for ongoing performance improvement is poor.

To say that long-term success depends on more structural reform and more austerity is not a comfortable political message.

Their interest, therefore, relies on long-term investments for long-term success , just as industry does.


The number of interbreeding populations is unknown, as are chances for long-term survival .

It is not possible though to find similar priorities for long-term survival where small firms are concerned.

When dissatisfaction identifies itself in the form of a complaint, this necessary condition for long-term survival is clearly not being met.

Their long-term survival is seriously in jeopardy, not from felling for timber or further agricultural clearance, but from livestock grazing.

The study's design provided the opportunity to examine the predictors of long-term survival after an acute episode of pneumonia.


First there is a long-term trend caused by fluctuations in the earth's magnetic field strength.

Certainly the recent waves of restructuring have speeded up the decline, but this is a long-term trend .

Even analysts who have been busily downgrading tech stocks tend to characterize the rout as a correction, not a long-term trend .

His world was one of party politics and current events, rather than long-term trends .

The point is only that there are long-term trends and patterns in crime, violence, and disorder.

Although the long-term trend is towards greater equality, most wealth still remains concentrated in the hands of a small minority.

That record also shows clear long-term trends , as well as fluctuations in rainfall and temperature.


Our aim is to prevent long-term unemployment , rather than just trying to cope with it after it has occurred.

Its rate of long-term unemployment now is much higher than in the United States.

Mr Milburn said the new statistics also revealed a disturbing trend towards long-term unemployment .

I asked Barry why he felt it important to mention his long-term unemployment in this article about leisure.

They illustrate that, at a time when long-term unemployment is spiralling, it does not pay to make mistakes.

The second problem is the prejudice which redundancy and long-term unemployment may create in the mind of the interviewer.

Since October, long-term unemployment among 18 to 24-year-olds rose by 14,100 to 209,600, the highest level since October 1987.

It has high unemployment and considerable long-term unemployment.


The side effects of the long-term use of caffeine are mild but extensive.

Operating leases are more in the nature of true rentals than a means to finance the long-term use of an asset.

Few doctors would recommend such long-term use .

With long-term use dependence and withdrawal effects can become major disadvantages.

Sufficient data on safety and efficacy of long-term use of Ritalin in children are not yet available.

The California researchers have been concerned about long-term use of the cholesterol-lowering drugs for several years.

Sleeping specialists believe that long-term use of sleeping pills should be restricted to a fairly small group of patients.

There are suggestions that with long-term use , fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine can cause subtle brain damage.


Moreover the long-term view demands that Vaughan should be battle-hardened soon.

In energy the long-term view must be taken.

They will also need to take the same long-term view .

He has very long-term views , Machiavellian almost.

Not many people have that kind of money, so it is important to take a long-term view of saving.

We have to take the long-term view on a market which will be important by the end of the decade.

It is the responsibility and duty of investors and businesses to take a long-term view and they increasingly do so.

The second is that their long-term view may be clouded by immediate short-term factors.


long-term investments

People need to think long-term .


Any patient who has vascular disease should be on long-term aspirin.

But my strategy was to keep in mind the long-term situation ....

But there is no evidence that they either intended or effected systematic and long-term destruction.

Further long-term savings are anticipated from the reforms.

Term Structure of Interest Rates Effective management of financing sources requires an understanding of the relationship between short-term and long-term interest rates.

This caution obviously arises from the need to minimize the risk of long-term side-effects caused by seemingly innocent new substances.

This chapter will discuss the main long-term contracts which a potential recording artist is likely to sign.

This means that fishing quotas are likely to fall in coming years in order to preserve the long-term future of the fisheries.

Longman DOCE5 Extras English vocabulary.      Дополнительный английский словарь Longman DOCE5.