Meaning of ORTHOGONAL in English


I. (ˈ)ȯ(r)|thägən ə l adjective

Etymology: Middle French, from Latin orthogonius orthogonal (from Greek orthogōnios, from orth- + -gōnios, from -gōnia angle) + Middle French -al — more at -gon

1. : lying or intersecting at right angles : rectangular , right-angled

wind and sea may displace the ship's center of gravity along three orthogonal axes — C.C.Shaw

in orthogonal cutting, the cutting edge is perpendicular to the direction of tool travel — M.E.Merchant & Hans Ernst


a. : mutually perpendicular

two vector functions the integral of whose scalar product throughout space is zero are orthogonal

b. : completely independent

two statistical variables having zero correlation are orthogonal

mental ability may be classified into several orthogonal … factors — O.D.Duncan

• or·thog·o·nal·ly -gən ə lē, -gnəlē adverb

II. noun

( -s )

: an imaginary line at right angles to wave crests in oceanography

III. adjective

1. : having a sum of products or an integral that is zero or sometimes 1 under specified conditions: as

a. of real-valued functions : having the integral of the product of each pair of functions over a specific interval equal to zero

b. of vectors : having the scalar product equal to zero

c. of a square matrix : having the sum of products of corresponding elements in any two rows or any two columns equal to 1 if the rows or columns are the same and equal to zero otherwise : having a transpose with which the product equals the identity matrix

2. of a linear transformation : having a matrix that is orthogonal : preserving length and distance

3. : composed of mutually orthogonal elements

an orthogonal basis of a vector space

Webster's New International English Dictionary.      Новый международный словарь английского языка Webster.