Meaning of FOUNDATION in English

FOUNDATION

I

Nongovernmental, nonprofit organization with assets provided by donors and managed by its own officials and with income expended for socially useful purposes.

Foundations can be traced back to ancient Greece. The late 19th century first saw the establishment of large foundations with broad purposes and great freedom of action, usually originating in the fortunes of wealthy industrialists. Today foundations are classified as community (having support from many donors and located in a specific community), corporation-sponsored, and independent. Notable examples include the Smithsonian Institution (1846), the Carnegie Corp. of New York (1911), the Rockefeller Foundation (1913), and the Ford Foundation (1936), one of the largest in the world. Nongovernmental organizations are known colloquially as "NGOs."

II

Part of a structural system that supports and anchors the superstructure of a building and transmits its loads directly to the earth.

To prevent damage from repeated freeze-thaw cycles, the bottom of the foundation must be below the frost line. The foundations of low-rise residential buildings are nearly all supported on spread footings, wide bases (usually of concrete) that support walls or piles may be placed at ground level, especially in a building without a basement, to support the exterior wall. Spread footings are also used

in greatly enlarged form

for high-rise buildings. Other systems for supporting heavy loads include piles, concrete caisson columns, and building directly on exposed rock. In yielding soil, a floating foundation

consisting of rigid, boxlike structures set at such a depth that the weight of the soil removed to place it equals the weight of the construction supported

may be used.

III

[c mediumvioletred] (as used in expressions)

Ford Foundation

Rockefeller Foundation

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Britannica English dictionary.      Английский словарь Британика.