Meaning of SCALE in English

SCALE

1. n. & v.

--n.

1. each of the small thin bony or horny overlapping plates protecting the skin of fish and reptiles.

2 something resembling a fish-scale, esp.: a a pod or husk. b a flake of skin; a scab. c a rudimentary leaf, feather, or bract. d each of the structures covering the wings of butterflies and moths. e Bot. a layer of a bulb.

3 a a flake formed on the surface of rusty iron. b a thick white deposit formed in a kettle, boiler, etc. by the action of heat on water.

4 plaque formed on teeth.

--v.

1. tr. remove scale or scales from (fish, nuts, iron, etc.).

2 tr. remove plaque from (teeth) by scraping.

3 intr. a (of skin, metal, etc.) form, come off in, or drop, scales. b (usu. foll. by off) (of scales) come off.

Phrases and idioms:

scale-armour hist. armour formed of metal scales attached to leather etc. scale-board very thin wood used for the back of a mirror, picture, etc. scale-bug scale insect. scale-fern any of various spleenworts, esp. Asplenium ceterach. scale insect any of various insects, esp. of the family Coccidae, clinging to plants and secreting a shieldlike scale as covering. scale-leaf a modified leaf resembling a scale. scale-moss a type of liverwort with scalelike leaves. scales fall from a person's eyes a person is no longer deceived (cf. Acts 9:18). scale-winged lepidopterous. scale-work an overlapping arrangement.

Derivatives:

scaled adj. (also in comb.). scaleless adj. scaler n.

Etymology: ME f. OF escale f. Gmc, rel. to SCALE(2) 2. n. & v.

--n.

1. a (often in pl.) a weighing machine or device (bathroom scales). b (also scale-pan) each of the dishes on a simple scale balance.

2 (the Scales) the zodiacal sign or constellation Libra.

--v.tr. (of something weighed) show (a specified weight) in the scales.

Phrases and idioms:

pair of scales a simple balance. throw into the scale cause to be a factor in a contest, debate, etc. tip (or turn) the scales

1. (usu. foll. by at) outweigh the opposite scale-pan (at a specified weight); weigh.

2 (of a motive, circumstance, etc.) be decisive.

Etymology: ME f. ON sk{aacute}l bowl f. Gmc 3. n. & v.

--n.

1. a series of degrees; a graded classification system (pay fees according to a prescribed scale; high on the social scale; seven points on the Richter scale).

2 a (often attrib.) Geog. & Archit. a ratio of size in a map, model, picture, etc. (on a scale of one centimetre to the kilometre; a scale model). b relative dimensions or degree (generosity on a grand scale).

3 Mus. an arrangement of all the notes in any system of music in ascending or descending order (chromatic scale; major scale).

4 a a set of marks on a line used in measuring, reducing, enlarging, etc. b a rule determining the distances between these. c a piece of metal, apparatus, etc. on which these are marked.

5 (in full scale of notation) Math. the ratio between units in a numerical system (decimal scale).

--v.

1. tr. a (also absol.) climb (a wall, height, etc.) esp. with a ladder. b climb (the social scale, heights of ambition, etc.).

2 tr. represent in proportional dimensions; reduce to a common scale.

3 intr. (of quantities etc.) have a common scale; be commensurable.

Phrases and idioms:

economies of scale proportionate savings gained by using larger quantities. in scale (of drawing etc.) in proportion to the surroundings etc. play (or sing) scales Mus. perform the notes of a scale as an exercise for the fingers or voice. scale down make smaller in proportion; reduce in size. scale up make larger in proportion; increase in size. scaling-ladder hist. a ladder used to climb esp. fortress walls, esp. to break a siege. to scale with a uniform reduction or enlargement.

Derivatives:

scaler n.

Etymology: (n.) ME ( ladder): (v.) ME f. OF escaler or med.L scalare f. L scala f. scandere climb

Oxford English vocab.      Оксфордский английский словарь.