Meaning of -ING in English

-ING

I. iŋ, ēŋ, ə̇n, ēn after any sound; after t ( but usually not when f, k, p, or s precedes ) & after d ( but usually not when l or n precedes ), ə n; after k ( but usually not when s precedes ) or g, sometimes ə ŋ; after p, b, or v ( the v assimilating to b), sometimes ə m as in ˈräb ə m for “robbing” or ˈmüb ə m for “moving”; in rapid speech, often ŋ or n after ē, ā, ī, or ȯi as in ˈsāŋ or ˈsān for “saying”; in NewEng often with intrusive r preceding when ȯ is the last sound in the infinitive form as in ˈdrȯriŋ or ˈdrȯrin for “drawing”; some have ŋ as their only consonant in this suffix & regard any other consonant as inelegant or substandard; some use consonants other than ŋ chiefly in informal speech; some use consonants other than ŋ for all styles of speech & of these some regard ŋ as artificial; for economy of space, ŋ is usually the only consonant shown for the suffix -ing in entries in this dictionary verb suffix or adjective suffix

Etymology: Middle English -inge, -ing, alteration (influenced by -inge -ing (III)) of -inde, -ende, from Old English -ende, from -e- (vowel historically belonging to the verb stem) + -nde, present participle suffix — more at -ant

— used to form the present participle

go ing

sail ing

and sometimes to form an adjective resembling a present participle but not derived from a verb

hulk ing

swashbuckl ing

regularly accompanied by omission of final postconsonantal e of the base word

hop ing

lov ing

change of final ie of the base word to y

ty ing

or doubling of the final consonant of the base word immediately after a short stressed vowel

hopp ing

plann ing

II. noun suffix

( -s )

Etymology: Middle English, from Old English -ing, -ung one of a (specified) kind, one belonging to, one descended from; akin to Old High German -ing one of a (specified) kind, one belonging to, one descended from, Old Norse -ingr, -ungr, Gothic -ings one of a (specified) kind

: one of a (specified) kind

sweet ing

wild ing

III. noun suffix

( -s )

Etymology: Middle English -inge, -ing (in early Middle English a suffix forming nouns from verbs, in later Middle English becoming also a gerundial suffix), from Old English -ung, -ing, suffix forming nouns from verbs; akin to Old High German -unga, -ung, suffix forming nouns from verbs, Old Norse -ing, suffix forming nouns from verbs, -ung, suffix forming nouns from nouns

1. : action or process

becom ing

draw ing

runn ing

sleep ing

wash ing

: instance of an action or process

a bless ing

a meet ing

my com ings and go ings

— in nouns formed from any fully inflected verb and functioning either as gerunds capable of being modified by an adverb and capable of having an object if the base verb is transitive

after casually read ing the letter twice

or as ordinary nouns

after two casual read ings of the letter

2. : something connected with an action or process:

a. : product, accompaniment, or result of an action or process

an engrav ing

a paint ing

— in nouns formed from verbs; often in plural

earn ings

leav ings

shav ings

b. : something used in an action or process

a bed cover ing

the lin ing of a coat

— in nouns, especially collectives

carpet ing

hous ing

rigg ing

shipp ing

formed from verbs

3. : action or process connected with (a specified thing)

blackberry ing

capital ing

— in nouns formed from nouns

4. : something connected with, consisting of, or used in making (a specified thing)

sack ing

scaffold ing

shirt ing

— in nouns, especially collectives, formed from nouns

5. : something related to (a specified concept)

off ing

— in nouns formed from parts of speech other than verbs and nouns; regularly accompanied by omission of final postconsonantal e of the base word, change of final ie of the base word to y, or doubling of the final consonant of the base word immediately after a short stressed vowel

Webster's New International English Dictionary.      Новый международный словарь английского языка Webster.