Meaning of BRUNEI in English

BRUNEI

officially State of Brunei, Abode of Peace, Malay Negara Brunei Darussalam, independent Islamic sultanate on the northern coast of the island of Borneo. It has an area of 2,226 square miles (5,765 square kilometres) and is bounded to the north by the South China Sea and on all other sides by the East Malaysian state of Sarawak, which also divides the state into two enclaves of unequal size. The western enclave is the larger of the two and contains the capital city of Bandar Seri Begawan. Brunei achieved independence in 1984, after having been a British protectorate since 1888. It is a member of the Commonwealth and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). officially State of Brunei, Abode of Peace, Malay Negara Brunei Darussalam independent Islamic sultanate occupying an enclave on the northwestern coast of the island of Borneo. Brunei is bordered by the South China Sea on the north and otherwise surrounded by Sarawak (a state of East Malaysia), which also juts northward to divide Brunei into two separate portions, the larger on the west. The capital is Bandar Seri Begawan. Area 2,226 square miles (5,765 square km). Pop. (1993 est.) 275,000. Additional reading Perhaps the most reliable and up-to-date reference source on the country is Country Profile: Malaysia, Brunei (annual). A collection of papers on the country's natural resources and environment is found in a special issue of Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, vol. 13, no. 1 (June 1992). Chua Thia-Eng, Chou Loke Ming, and Marie Sol M. Sadorra (eds.), The Coastal Environmental Profile of Brunei Darussalam (1987), includes articles on land use, population, and the institutional framework. Other economic studies include Tilak Doshi, Brunei: The Steady State, Southeast Asian Affairs (1991), pp. 7180; and Sritua Arief, The Brunei Economy (1986).D.E. Brown, Brunei (1970), chronicles the history of the sultanate from the early 19th century to the late 1960s. A well-researched standard text is Ranjit Singh, Brunei, 18391983 (1984). K.u. Menon, Brunei Darussalam in 1986: In Search of the Political Kingdom, Southeast Asian Affairs (1987), pp. 85101, traces political developments in the first three years of full independence. See also Abu Bakar Hamzah, Brunei Darussalam Continuity and Tradition, Southeast Asian Affairs (1989), pp. 91104; and Zainal Kling, The Changing International Image of Brunei, Southeast Asian Affairs (1990), pp. 89100. Ooi Jin Bee Administration and social conditions Government In 1959 Brunei became a self-governing state and adopted a constitution, although the British retained jurisdiction over foreign policy, defense, and internal security. Limited attempts at elected, representative government under this constitution were abandoned by 1970. After Brunei attained full independence in 1984, an Islamic sultanate was established. Ultimate authority rests with the sultan, who, as prime minister, presides over a Council of Ministers (cabinet) and is advised by several other councils (Religious, Privy, Succession, and Legislative); the members of these bodies are appointed by the sultan. Judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court, composed of a Court of Appeal and a High Court. There also are religious courts that can appeal to the Religious Council. Brunei is divided into four districts for local administration: Belait, Tutong, and Brunei and Muara in the western enclave and Temburong in the east. Armed forces The small, well-equipped Royal Brunei Armed Forces consists mainly of an army group, with smaller navy and air force units. These forces are supplemented by a battalion of British Army Gurkhas and by the Royal Brunei Malay Reserve Regiment, formed in 1988.

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