Meaning of CHOU DYNASTY in English

Pinyin Zhou (traditionally, 1122-256/255 BC), dynasty that ruled ancient China for almost a millennium, establishing the distinctive political and cultural characteristics that were to be identified with China for the next 2,000 years. (The latest [proposed] date for the beginning of the Chou dynasty is 1027 BC; many scholars favour a date between the traditional date and 1027, roughly 1050 BC.) The Chou coexisted with the Shang for many years, living just west of the Shang territory in what is now Shensi province. At various times they were a friendly tributary state to the Shang, alternatively warring with them. One of the Chou ruling house devised a plan to conquer the Shang, and a decisive battle was fought, probably in the mid-11th century. Before the whole Shang territory could be consolidated by the Chou, a rebellion broke out. The fighting went on for three years before the rebellion was put down, and finally the Chou solidified their reign over all of China. An array of feudal states was created within the empire to maintain order and the emperor's hold on the land. The original Chou capital had been located near present-day Sian on the Wei River above its confluence with the Huang Ho (Yellow River). To support the empire in the east and its loyal feudal rulers, an eastern capital was built at Lo-yang on the middle reaches of the Huang Ho. It was some 200 years before the stability of this arrangement began to collapse with the increasing local interests of the 20 or more feudal lords, and in the 8th century BC the political system, which had essentially consisted of a network of extended family, began to weaken seriously. With the decline of the feudal king's power, de facto power fluctuated among various of the feudal chiefs as they were able to make themselves overlords. The period before 771 BC is usually known as the Western Chou (Hsi Chou) dynasty, and that from 770 is known as the Eastern Chou (Tung Chou) dynasty. The Eastern Chou itself is often further subdivided into the Spring and Autumn (Ch'un-ch'iu) Period (770-476), when China consisted of many small squabbling states, and the Warring States (Chan-kuo) Period (475-221), when the small states consolidated into several larger units, which struggled with one another for mastery. Finally, one of these small kingdoms, Ch'in (from which derives modern China's name), succeeded in conquering the rest of the states and establishing the Ch'in dynasty (221-206 BC). The visual arts of the Chou dynasty reflect the diversity of the feudal states of which it was composed and into which it eventually broke up. The arts of the early Chou dynasty were essentially a continuation of those of the Shang dynasty. This was especially true of works in bronze, in which there was an accelerated deterioration of the variety of shapes, the decoration, and the craftsmanship of casting. It was not until the Eastern Chou and the classical age of Confucius and Lao-tzu that unique local traditions became apparent. The range of applied decoration for the first time included pictorial subjects-for example, hunting scenes and chariots and horsemen. As the empire was breaking up, arts and culture were flowering in the various component states, encouraged and stimulated by the very localized interests that fed the impulse toward independence of the empire. The remains of many of the feudal capitals during the Chou period have been uncovered and reveal great buildings with rammed-earth floors and walls; there were also two-story buildings and observation towers, and Lao-tzu mentions a nine-story tower. Although (with the exception of a few works on silk) no painting survives from the Chou, written descriptions of paintings evidence their themes, including figures, portraits, and historic scenes. Lacquerware including gold and silver inlay became finely developed, and bronzework carried on from the great legacy of the Shang. Jade ornaments and objects were used lavishly for funerary and ritual purposes, and ornamental carvings reflected superb craftsmanship. Pottery continued Shang traditions and expanded greatly in variety of shapes and finishes during the Warring States Period. During the Chou dynasty, China underwent quite dramatic changes. Iron, ox-drawn plows, crossbows, and horseback riding were all introduced; large-scale irrigation and water-control projects were also instituted for the first time, greatly increasing the crop yield of the North China Plain. The communication system was also greatly improved through the construction of new roads and canals. Trade was increased, towns grew up, coinage was developed, chopsticks came into use, and the Chinese writing system was created out of its primitive beginnings in the Shang period. There was also a great philosophical flowering: the schools of Confucianism, Taoism, and legalism developed in this period. Literature flourished with Confucius and other great Chinese philosophers. Later generations of Chinese regularly studied the Chou dynasty for information regarding the origin of their civilization.

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