Meaning of INFRARED ASTRONOMY in English
- INFRARED ASTRONOMY
study of astronomical objects through observations of the infrared radiation that they emit. Various types of celestial objectsincluding the planets of the solar system, stars, nebulae, and galaxiesgive off energy at wavelengths in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum (i.e., from about one micrometre to one millimetre). The techniques of infrared astronomy enable investigators to examine many such objects that cannot otherwise be seen from the Earth because the light of optical wavelengths that they emit is blocked by intervening dust particles. Infrared astronomy originated in the early 1800s with the work of the British astronomer Sir William Herschel, who discovered the existence of infrared radiation while studying sunlight. The first systematic infrared observations of stellar objects were made by the American astronomers W.W. Coblentz, Edison Pettit, and Seth B. Nicholson in the 1920s. Modern infrared techniques, such as the use of cryogenic detector systems (to eliminate obstruction by infrared radiation released by the detection equipment itself) and special interference filters for ground-based telescopes, were introduced during the early 1960s. By the end of the decade, Gerry Neugebauer and Robert Leighton of the United States had surveyed the sky at the relatively short infrared wavelength of 2.2 micrometres and identified approximately 20,000 sources in the northern hemispheric sky alone. Since that time, balloons, rockets, and spacecraft have been employed to make observations of infrared wavelengths from 35 to 350 micrometres. Radiation at such wavelengths is absorbed by water vapour in the atmosphere, and so telescopes and spectrographs have to be carried to high altitudes above most of the absorbing molecules. Specially instrumented high-flying aircraft such as the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (q.v.) have been designed to facilitate infrared observations near microwave frequencies. In January 1983 the United States, in collaboration with the United Kingdom and The Netherlands, launched the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), an unmanned orbiting observatory equipped with a 57-centimetre (22-inch) infrared telescope sensitive to wavelengths of 8 to 100 micrometres in the infrared spectrum. At these wavelengths, IRAS made a number of unexpected discoveries. The most significant of these were clouds of solid debris around Vega, Fomalhaut, and several other stars, the presence of which strongly suggests the formation of planetary systems similar to that of the Sun. Other important findings included various clouds of interstellar gas and dust where new stars are being formed and an object, designated 1983TB, thought to be the parent body for the swarm of meteoroids known as Geminids.
Britannica English vocabulary. Английский словарь Британика. 2012