Meaning of PRISM in English
Functions of a prism (Right) The reversal of light by a prism; (left) the dispersion of 1/4 in optics, piece of glass or other transparent material cut with precise angles and plane faces, useful for analyzing and reflecting light. An ordinary triangular prism can separate white light into its constituent colours, called a spectrum (see illustration, left). Each colour, or wavelength, making up the white light is bent, or refracted, a different amount; the shorter wavelengths (those toward the violet end of the spectrum) are bent the most, and the longer wavelengths (those toward the red end of the spectrum) are bent the least. Prisms of this kind are used in certain spectroscopes, instruments for analyzing light and for determining the identity and structure of materials that emit or absorb light. Functions of a prism (Right) The reversal of light by a prism; (left) the dispersion of 1/4 Prisms can reverse the direction of light by internal reflection (see illustration, right), and for this purpose they are useful in binoculars (q.v.). Prisms are made in many different forms and shapes, depending on the application. The Porro prism, for example, consists of two prisms arranged both to invert and to reverse an image and are used in many optical viewing instruments, such as periscopes, binoculars, and monoculars. The Nicol prism consists of two specially cut calcite prisms bonded together with an adhesive known as Canada balsam. This prism transmits waves vibrating in one direction only and thus produces a plane-polarized beam from ordinary light.
Britannica English vocabulary. Английский словарь Британика. 2012